mTOR Signaling Pathway

Click on one of the buttons below to highlight the molecules involved in each cellular process and how they interact with mTOR.

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TNF-alpha
TNF-alpha
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TNF R
TNF R
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RIP1
RIP1
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NIK
NIK
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IKK beta
IKK beta
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REDD1
REDD1
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p53
p53
AMPK
AMPK
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MO25
MO25
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LKB1
LKB1
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STRAD
STRAD
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GSK-3beta
GSK-3beta
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GSK-3beta
GSK-3beta
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APC
APC
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Axin
Axin
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CK1
CK1
Dishevelled
Dishevelled
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LRP-5/6
LRP-5/6
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Frizzled
Frizzled
Wnt
Wnt
R-Spondin
R-Spondin
HSPG
HSPG
Lgr4,5,6
Lgr4,5,6
Growth Factor Receptors
Growth Factor Receptors
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Ras
Ras
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PI 3-K
PI 3-K
PIP2
PIP2
PIP3
PIP3
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PTEN
PTEN
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Growth Factors
Growth Factors
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GRB2
GRB2
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SOS
SOS
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IRS1
IRS1
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Raf
Raf
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MEK1/2
MEK1/2
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ERK1/2
ERK1/2
Akt
Akt
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PDK-1
PDK-1
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RSK
RSK
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TSC1/2
TSC1/2
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TBC
1D7
TBC
1D7
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Rheb
Rheb
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DEPTOR
DEPTOR
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GBL
GBL
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Raptor
Raptor
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PRAS40
PRAS40
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mTOR
mTOR
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MTORC1
MTORC1
Lysosome
Lysosome
DEPTOR
DEPTOR
mSIN1
mSIN1
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mTOR
mTOR
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Proctor
Proctor
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Rictor
Rictor
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GBL
GBL
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MTORC2
MTORC2
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SGK1
SGK1
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PKC alpha
PKC alpha
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Rho
Rho
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Rac1
Rac1
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Paxillin
Paxillin
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p70 S6 Kinase
p70 S6 Kinase
eEF2K
eEF2K
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eEF2
eEF2
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Lipin 1
Lipin 1
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Inactive
SREBP1/2
Inactive
SREBP1/2
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Active
SREBP1/2
Active
SREBP1/2
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SREBP1/2
SREBP1/2
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eIF4B
eIF4B
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PDCD4
PDCD4
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4EBP1
4EBP1
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eIF4A
eIF4A
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eIF4G
eIF4G
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eIF4E
eIF4E
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Maf1
Maf1
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TIF1A
TIF1A
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Pol I
Pol I
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Pol III
Pol III
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Hypoxia

Hypoxia

DNA Damage

DNA Damage

Energy Stress

Energy Stress

Protein
Elongation

Protein
Elongation

Lysosome
Biogenesis

Lysosome
Biogenesis

Megabolism

Megabolism

Autophagy

Autophagy

Translation
Initiation

Translation
Initiation

Cytoskeletal
Rearrangement

Cytoskeletal
Rearrangement

Fatty Acid and Cholesterol
Synthesis Genes
Fatty Acid and Cholesterol
Synthesis Genes
rRNA
rRNA
rRNA
rRNA
tRNA
tRNA

Overview of mTOR Signaling

The mammalian Target of Rapamycin (mTOR) Complex is the central cellular regulator of anabolic and catabolic cellular metabolism and survival. mTOR forms at least two distinct multi-protein complexes (mTORCs) with additional regulatory proteins. mTORC1 includes mTOR, Raptor, Pras40, Deptor, and GBL/mLST8 while mTORC2 includes mTOR, Rictor, mSin1, Proctor/PRR5, Deptor, and GBL/mLST8. mTOR activity is regulated in response to both extracellular and intracellular cues. Extracellular signaling factors, including Wnts, TNF-alpha, and growth factors, signal through a variety of intracellular pathways to TSC1/2, to regulate mTORC1 activity. In addition to responding to extracellular cues, mTORC1 activity is also regulated by intracellular cues including energy availability, oxygen levels, and amino acid availability. In the presence of available amino acids, the mTOR Complex 1 (mTORC1) is recruited to the lysosomal membrane where it initiates anabolic activities including protein synthesis, lipid synthesis, autophagy, and mitochondrial metabolism and biogenesis.

Less is known about the upstream signals and cellular functions that regulate mTORC2. mTORC2 activity is strongly correlated with AKT activity. mTORC2 has been shown to regulate cytoskeletal rearrangement, as well as cell survival and proliferation.

mTOR Signaling Pathway background image 1mTOR Signaling Pathway background image 2mTOR Signaling Pathway background image 3mTOR Signaling Pathway background image 4mTOR Signaling Pathway background image 5