Recombinant Human TLR4 Protein, CF
Recombinant Human TLR4 Protein, CF Summary
Glu24-Lys631, with a C-terminal Ser and 10-His tag
CF stands for Carrier Free (CF). We typically add Bovine Serum Albumin (BSA) as a carrier protein to our recombinant proteins. Adding a carrier protein enhances protein stability, increases shelf-life, and allows the recombinant protein to be stored at a more dilute concentration. The carrier free version does not contain BSA.
In general, we advise purchasing the recombinant protein with BSA for use in cell or tissue culture, or as an ELISA standard. In contrast, the carrier free protein is recommended for applications, in which the presence of BSA could interfere.
|Formulation||Lyophilized from a 0.2 μm filtered solution in PBS.|
|Reconstitution||Reconstitute at 100 μg/mL in PBS.|
|Shipping||The product is shipped at ambient temperature. Upon receipt, store it immediately at the temperature recommended below.|
|Stability & Storage:||Use a manual defrost freezer and avoid repeated freeze-thaw cycles.
TLR4 is a 100 kDa type I transmembrane glycoprotein that belongs to the mammalian Toll‑Like Receptor family of pathogen pattern recognition molecules. The complex of TLR4 with MD‑2 functions as a critical receptor for bacterial endotoxin/lipopolysaccharide (LPS) (1-3). Mature human TLR4 consists of a 608 amino acid (aa) extracellular domain (ECD), a 21 aa transmembrane segment, and a 187 aa cytoplasmic domain. TLR4 contains 21 leucine rich repeats in its ECD and one cytoplasmic Toll/IL‑1 receptor (TIR) domain (4). The ECD of human TLR4 shares approximately 25% aa sequence identity with other human TLRs and 60%-74% aa sequence identity with bovine, equine, feline, mouse, rat, and porcine TLR4. On monocytes, macrophages, dendritic cells, and B cells, MD-2 expression is required for cell surface localization of TLR4 and for optimal LPS-induced TLR4 signaling (5-8). MD-2 also forms soluble disulfide‑linked homo‑oligomers which can interact with TLR4 (6). Through a domain separate from its TLR4-binding domain, MD-2 extracts LPS from circulating CD14-LPS complexes and carries the LPS into a ternary complex with TLR4 (9-11). The interaction of MD-2/LPS with TLR4 induces receptor oligomerization and the triggering of an inflammatory response (2, 12). Increased levels of plasma MD-2 in septic shock patients sensitizes MD-2 non-expressing epithelial cells to LPS and promotes widespread tissue inflammation (13).
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- Visintin, A. et al. (2001) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. 98:12156.
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- Nagai, Y. et al. (2002) Nat. Immunol. 3:667.
- Re, F. and J.L. Strominger (2003) J. Immunol. 171:5272.
- Kennedy, M.N. et al. (2004) J. Biol. Chem. 279:34698.
- Gioannini, T.L. et al. (2004) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. 101:4186.
- Saitoh, S. et al. (2004) J. Endotoxin Res. 10:257.
- Pugin, J. et al. (2004) Blood 104:4071.
Citations for Recombinant Human TLR4 Protein, CF
R&D Systems personnel manually curate a database that contains references using R&D Systems products. The data collected includes not only links to publications in PubMed, but also provides information about sample types, species, and experimental conditions.
Citations: Showing 1 - 6
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Role of TLR4 Receptor Complex in the Regulation of the Innate Immune Response by Fibronectin
Authors: M Zheng, A Ambesi, P J McKeown-
Applications: Cell Culture
Galectin-3 promotes A&beta oligomerization and A&beta toxicity in a mouse model of Alzheimer's disease
Authors: CC Tao, KM Cheng, YL Ma, WL Hsu, YC Chen, JL Fuh, WJ Lee, CC Chao, EHY Lee
Cell Death Differ., 2020;27(1):192-209.
Sample Types: Hippocampal Cell Lysates
Identification of FimH derivatives as adjuvant vaccinated with PAc that enhance protection against Streptcoccus mutans colonization
Authors: Z Liu, J Chen, W Li, Y Bi, Y Li, M Fan
Mol. Cell. Probes, 2019;0(0):.
Species: Bacteria - E. Coli
Sample Types: Recombinant Protein
Applications: Far Western Blot
Specific Interactions Measured by AFM on Living Cells between Peroxiredoxin-5 and TLR4: Relevance for Mechanisms of Innate Immunity
Authors: B Knoops, S Becker, MA Poncin, J Glibert, S Derclaye, A Clippe, D Alsteens
Cell Chem Biol, 2018;0(0):.
Applications: Forced Spectroscopy
Importance of the C-terminal histidine residues of Helicobacter pylori GroES for Toll-like receptor 4 binding and interleukin-8 cytokine production
Sci Rep, 2016;6(0):37367.
Sample Types: Complex Sample Type
Applications: Surface Plasmon Resonance
Maximizing the potency of an anti-TLR4 monoclonal antibody by exploiting proximity to Fcgamma receptors.
Authors: Loyau J, Malinge P, Daubeuf B, Shang L, Elson G, Kosco-Vilbois M, Fischer N, Rousseau F
Sample Types: Antibody
Applications: ELISA Developmet
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