Recombinant Human TLR4 Protein, CF

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Recombinant Human TLR4 Protein, CF Summary

Product Specifications

>95%, by SDS-PAGE visualized with Silver Staining and quantitative densitometry by Coomassie® Blue Staining.
Endotoxin Level
<0.10 EU per 1 μg of the protein by the LAL method.
Measured by its binding ability in a functional ELISA. When Recombinant Human (rh) TLR4 is Immobilized at 2 μg/mL (100 μL/well), the concentration of rhMD2 that produces 50% optimal binding response is found to be approximately 0.03-0.15 μg/mL.
Mouse myeloma cell line, NS0-derived human TLR4 protein
Glu24-Lys631, with a C-terminal Ser and 10-His tag
Accession #
N-terminal Sequence
Predicted Molecular Mass
70.6 kDa
90-95 kDa, reducing conditions

Product Datasheets

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Carrier Free

What does CF mean?

CF stands for Carrier Free (CF). We typically add Bovine Serum Albumin (BSA) as a carrier protein to our recombinant proteins. Adding a carrier protein enhances protein stability, increases shelf-life, and allows the recombinant protein to be stored at a more dilute concentration. The carrier free version does not contain BSA.

What formulation is right for me?

In general, we advise purchasing the recombinant protein with BSA for use in cell or tissue culture, or as an ELISA standard. In contrast, the carrier free protein is recommended for applications, in which the presence of BSA could interfere.


Formulation Lyophilized from a 0.2 μm filtered solution in PBS.
Reconstitution Reconstitute at 100 μg/mL in PBS.
Shipping The product is shipped at ambient temperature. Upon receipt, store it immediately at the temperature recommended below.
Stability & Storage: Use a manual defrost freezer and avoid repeated freeze-thaw cycles.
  • 12 months from date of receipt, -20 to -70 °C as supplied.
  • 1 month, 2 to 8 °C under sterile conditions after reconstitution.
  • 3 months, -20 to -70 °C under sterile conditions after reconstitution.
Reconstitution Calculator

Reconstitution Calculator

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Background: TLR4

TLR4 is a 100 kDa type I transmembrane glycoprotein that belongs to the mammalian Toll‑Like Receptor family of pathogen pattern recognition molecules. The complex of TLR4 with MD‑2 functions as a critical receptor for bacterial endotoxin/lipopolysaccharide (LPS) (1-3). Mature human TLR4 consists of a 608 amino acid (aa) extracellular domain (ECD), a 21 aa transmembrane segment, and a 187 aa cytoplasmic domain. TLR4 contains 21 leucine rich repeats in its ECD and one cytoplasmic Toll/IL‑1 receptor (TIR) domain (4). The ECD of human TLR4 shares approximately 25% aa sequence identity with other human TLRs and 60%-74% aa sequence identity with bovine, equine, feline, mouse, rat, and porcine TLR4. On monocytes, macrophages, dendritic cells, and B cells, MD-2 expression is required for cell surface localization of TLR4 and for optimal LPS-induced TLR4 signaling (5-8). MD-2 also forms soluble disulfide‑linked homo‑oligomers which can interact with TLR4 (6). Through a domain separate from its TLR4-binding domain, MD-2 extracts LPS from circulating CD14-LPS complexes and carries the LPS into a ternary complex with TLR4 (9-11). The interaction of MD-2/LPS with TLR4 induces receptor oligomerization and the triggering of an inflammatory response (2, 12). Increased levels of plasma MD-2 in septic shock patients sensitizes MD-2 non-expressing epithelial cells to LPS and promotes widespread tissue inflammation (13).

  1. Miyake, K. (2004) Semin. Immunol. 16:11.
  2. Verstrepen, L. et al. (2008) Cell. Mol. Life Sci. 65:2964.
  3. Erridge, C. (2010) J. Leukoc. Biol. 87:989.
  4. Medzhitov, R. et al. (1997) Nature 388:394.
  5. Shimazu, R. et al. (1999) J. Exp. Med. 189:1777.
  6. Visintin, A. et al. (2001) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. 98:12156.
  7. Akashi, S. et al. (2000) J. Immunol. 164:3471.
  8. Nagai, Y. et al. (2002) Nat. Immunol. 3:667.
  9. Re, F. and J.L. Strominger (2003) J. Immunol. 171:5272.
  10. Kennedy, M.N. et al. (2004) J. Biol. Chem. 279:34698.
  11. Gioannini, T.L. et al. (2004) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. 101:4186.
  12. Saitoh, S. et al. (2004) J. Endotoxin Res. 10:257.
  13. Pugin, J. et al. (2004) Blood 104:4071.
Long Name
Toll-like Receptor 4
Entrez Gene IDs
7099 (Human); 21898 (Mouse); 29260 (Rat)
Alternate Names
ARMD10; CD_antigen: CD284; CD284 antigen; CD284; EC; EC:; homolog of Drosophila toll; hToll; TLR4; TLR-4; toll like receptor 4 protein; TOLL; toll-like receptor 4

Citations for Recombinant Human TLR4 Protein, CF

R&D Systems personnel manually curate a database that contains references using R&D Systems products. The data collected includes not only links to publications in PubMed, but also provides information about sample types, species, and experimental conditions.

14 Citations: Showing 1 - 10
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  1. The antimicrobial peptide LK2(6)A(L) exhibits anti-inflammatory activity by binding to the myeloid differentiation 2 domain and protects against LPS-induced acute lung injury in mice
    Authors: J Zhang, Y Sun, C Sun, D Shang
    Bioorganic chemistry, 2023-01-18;132(0):106376.
    Species: N/A
    Sample Types: Peptide
    Applications: Surface Plasmon Resonance
  2. Characterization of a Cutibacterium acnes Camp Factor 1-Related Peptide as a New TLR-2 Modulator in In Vitro and Ex Vivo Models of Inflammation
    Authors: C Mayslich, PA Grange, M Castela, AG Marcelin, V Calvez, N Dupin
    International Journal of Molecular Sciences, 2022-05-03;23(9):.
    Species: Human
    Sample Types: Protein
    Applications: Bioassay, Western Blot (Detection)
  3. Neuron-Microglia Contacts Govern the PGE2 Tolerance through TLR4-Mediated de Novo Protein Synthesis
    Authors: HC Kuo, KF Lee, SL Chen, SC Chiu, LY Lee, WP Chen, CC Chen, CH Chu
    Biomedicines, 2022-02-10;10(2):.
    Species: Mouse
    Sample Types: Whole Cells
    Applications: Bioassay
  4. LYSMD3: A mammalian pattern recognition receptor for chitin
    Authors: X He, BA Howard, Y Liu, AK Neumann, L Li, N Menon, T Roach, SD Kale, DC Samuels, H Li, T Kite, H Kita, TY Hu, M Luo, CN Jones, UJ Okaa, DL Squillace, BS Klein, CB Lawrence
    Cell Reports, 2021-07-20;36(3):109392.
    Species: Human
    Sample Types: Whole Cells
    Applications: Bioassay
  5. Astilbin prevents osteoarthritis development through the TLR4/MD-2 pathway
    Authors: S Sun, Z Yan, X Shui, W Qi, Y Chen, X Xu, Y Hu, W Guo, P Shang
    J Cell Mol Med, 2020-10-16;0(0):.
    Species: Human
    Sample Types: Peptide
    Applications: ELISA Capture
  6. Toll-like receptor 4-mediated inflammation triggered by extracellular IFI16 is enhanced by lipopolysaccharide binding
    Authors: A Iannucci, V Caneparo, S Raviola, I Debernardi, D Colangelo, R Miggiano, G Griffante, S Landolfo, M Gariglio, M De Andrea
    PLoS Pathog., 2020-09-09;16(9):e1008811.
    Species: Human
    Sample Types: Protein
    Applications: Surface Plasmon Resonance
  7. Procyanidin B3 alleviates intervertebral disc degeneration via interaction with the TLR4/MD-2 complex
    Authors: P Shang, Q Tang, Z Hu, S Huang, Y Hu, J Zhu, H Liu
    J. Cell. Mol. Med., 2020-02-18;0(0):.
    Applications: ELISA (Standard)
  8. Inorganic polyphosphate potentiates lipopolysaccharide-induced macrophage inflammatory response
    Authors: T Ito, S Yamamoto, K Yamaguchi, M Sato, Y Kaneko, S Goto, Y Goto, I Narita
    J. Biol. Chem., 2020-02-10;0(0):.
    Species: N/A
    Sample Types: Complex Sample Type
    Applications: Bioassay
  9. Role of TLR4 Receptor Complex in the Regulation of the Innate Immune Response by Fibronectin
    Authors: M Zheng, A Ambesi, P J McKeown-
    Cells, 2020-01-15;9(1):.
    Species: Human
    Sample Types:
    Applications: Cell Culture
  10. Galectin-3 promotes A&beta oligomerization and A&beta toxicity in a mouse model of Alzheimer's disease
    Authors: CC Tao, KM Cheng, YL Ma, WL Hsu, YC Chen, JL Fuh, WJ Lee, CC Chao, EHY Lee
    Cell Death Differ., 2019-05-24;27(1):192-209.
    Species: Human
    Sample Types: Hippocampal Cell Lysates
    Applications: IP
  11. Identification of FimH derivatives as adjuvant vaccinated with PAc that enhance protection against Streptcoccus mutans colonization
    Authors: Z Liu, J Chen, W Li, Y Bi, Y Li, M Fan
    Mol. Cell. Probes, 2019-03-30;0(0):.
    Species: Bacteria - E. Coli
    Sample Types: Recombinant Protein
    Applications: Far Western Blot
  12. Specific Interactions Measured by AFM on Living Cells between Peroxiredoxin-5 and TLR4: Relevance for Mechanisms of Innate Immunity
    Authors: B Knoops, S Becker, MA Poncin, J Glibert, S Derclaye, A Clippe, D Alsteens
    Cell Chem Biol, 2018-03-15;0(0):.
  13. Importance of the C-terminal histidine residues of Helicobacter pylori GroES for Toll-like receptor 4 binding and interleukin-8 cytokine production
    Sci Rep, 2016-11-21;6(0):37367.
    Applications: Surface Plasmon Resonance
  14. Maximizing the potency of an anti-TLR4 monoclonal antibody by exploiting proximity to Fcgamma receptors.
    Authors: Loyau J, Malinge P, Daubeuf B, Shang L, Elson G, Kosco-Vilbois M, Fischer N, Rousseau F
    MAbs, 2014-01-01;6(6):1621-30.
    Species: Human
    Sample Types: Antibody
    Applications: ELISA Developmet


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Recombinant Human TLR4 Protein, CF
By Anonymous on 03/29/2021
Application: Binding assay/Protein-protein interaction

we use this protein to see interactions with TLR4 antibody, it has a very good affinity towards TLR4 monoclonal antibody in direct ELISA.

Recombinant Human TLR4 Protein, CF
By Anonymous on 08/28/2020
Application: Binding assay/Protein-protein interaction

Different concentrations of human TLR4-His were used to determine the affinity an a TLR4-specific mAb using the Octet system.