TGF-beta 3 Biotinylated Antibody
TGF-beta 3 Biotinylated Antibody Summary
Human TGF-beta 3 Sandwich Immunoassay
Please Note: Optimal dilutions should be determined by each laboratory for each application. General Protocols are available in the Technical Information section on our website.
Preparation and Storage
- 12 months from date of receipt, -20 to -70 °C as supplied.
- 1 month, 2 to 8 °C under sterile conditions after reconstitution.
- 6 months, -20 to -70 °C under sterile conditions after reconstitution.
Background: TGF-beta 3
TGF-beta 3 (transforming growth factor beta 3) is one of three closely related mammalian members of the large TGF-beta superfamily that share a characteristic cystine knot structure (1 - 7). TGF-beta 1, -2 and -3 are highly pleiotropic cytokines that are proposed to act as cellular switches that regulate processes such as immune function, proliferation and epithelial-mesenchymal transition (1 - 4). Each TGF-beta isoform has some non-redundant functions; for TGF-beta 3, mice with targeted deletion show defects palatogenesis and pulmonary development (2). Human TGF-beta 3 cDNA encodes a 412 amino acid (aa) precursor that contains a 20 aa signal peptide and a 392 aa proprotein (8). A furin-like convertase processes the proprotein to generate an N-terminal 220 aa latency-associated peptide (LAP) and a C-terminal 112 aa mature TGF- beta 3 (8, 9). Disulfide-linked homodimers of LAP and TGF-beta 3 remain non-covalently associated after secretion, forming the small latent TGF-beta 3 complex (8 - 10). Covalent linkage of LAP to one of three latent TGF-beta binding proteins (LTBPs) creates a large latent complex that may interact with the extracellular matrix (9, 10). TGF-beta is activated from latency by pathways that include actions of the protease plasmin, matrix metalloproteases, thrombospondin 1 and a subset of integrins (10). Mature human TGF-beta 3 shows 100%, 99% and 98% aa identity with mouse/dog/horse, rat and pig TGF-beta 3, respectively. It demonstrates cross-species activity.(1) TGF-beta 3 signaling begins with high-affinity binding to a type II ser/thr kinase receptor termed TGF-beta RII. This receptor then phosphorylates and activates a second ser/thr kinase receptor, TGF-beta RI (also called activin receptor-like kinase (ALK) -5), or alternatively, ALK-1.This complex phosphorylates and activates Smad proteins that regulate transcription ( 3, 11, 12). Contributions of the accessory receptors betaglycan (also known as TGF-beta RIII) and endoglin, or use of Smad-independent signaling pathways, allow for disparate actions observed in response to TGF-beta in different contexts (11).
- Sporn, M.B. (2006) Cytokine Growth Factor Rev. 17:3.
- Dunker, N. and K. Krieglstein (2000) Eur. J. Biochem. 267:6982.
- Wahl, S.M. (2006) Immunol. Rev. 213:213.
- Chang, H. et al. (2002) Endocr. Rev. 23:787.
- Lin, J.S. et al. (2006) Reproduction 132:179.
- Hinck, A.P. et al. (1996) Biochemistry 35:8517.
- Mittl, P.R.E. et al. (1996) Protein Sci. 5:1261.
- Derynck, R. et al. (1988) EMBO J. 7:3737.
- Miyazono, K. et al. (1988) J. Biol. Chem. 263:6407.
- Oklu, R. and R. Hesketh (2000) Biochem. J. 352:601.
- de Caestecker, M. et al. (2004) Cytokine Growth Factor Rev. 15:1.
- Zuniga, J.E. et al. (2005) J. Mol. Biol. 354:1052.
Citations for TGF-beta 3 Biotinylated Antibody
R&D Systems personnel manually curate a database that contains references using R&D Systems products. The data collected includes not only links to publications in PubMed, but also provides information about sample types, species, and experimental conditions.
Citations: Showing 1 - 2
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Th2 cytokine regulation of type I collagen gel contraction mediated by human lung mesenchymal cells.
Authors: Liu X, Kohyama T, Wang H, Zhu YK, Wen FQ, Kim HJ, Romberger DJ, Rennard SI
Am. J. Physiol. Lung Cell Mol. Physiol., 2002;282(5):L1049-56.
Sample Types: Cell Culture Supernates
Applications: ELISA Development
Transforming growth factor beta expression in human placenta and placental bed during early pregnancy.
Authors: Simpson H, 2019, Robson SC, Bulmer JN, Barber A, Lyall F
Sample Types: Tissue Homogenates
Applications: ELISA Development
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