Human Epiregulin Antibody

(6 citations)   
  • Species Reactivity
    Human
  • Specificity
    Detects human Epiregulin in direct ELISAs and Western blots. In direct ELISAs and Western blots, approximately 50% cross-reactivity with recombinant mouse Epiregulin is observed.
  • Source
    Polyclonal Goat IgG
  • Purification
    Antigen Affinity-purified
  • Immunogen
    E. coli-derived recombinant human Epiregulin (R&D Systems, Catalog # 1195-EP)
    Val63-Leu108
    Accession # O14944
  • Formulation
    Lyophilized from a 0.2 μm filtered solution in PBS with Trehalose. *Small pack size (SP) is supplied as a 0.2 µm filtered solution in PBS.
  • Endotoxin Level
    <0.10 EU per 1 μg of the antibody by the LAL method.
  • Label
    Unconjugated
Applications
  •  
    Recommended
    Concentration
    Sample
  • Western Blot
    0.1 µg/mL
    Recombinant Human Epiregulin (Catalog # 1195-EP)
  • Immunohistochemistry
    5-15 µg/mL
    See below
  • Neutralization
    Measured by its ability to neutralize Epiregulin-induced proliferation in the Balb/3T3 mouse embryonic fibroblast cell line. The Neutralization Dose (ND50) is typically 0.3-1.5 µg/mL in the presence of 5  ng/mL Recombinant Human Epiregulin.
Please Note: Optimal dilutions should be determined by each laboratory for each application. General Protocols are available in the Technical Information section on our website.
Data Examples

Cell Proliferation Induced by Epiregulin and Neutralization by Human Epiregulin Antibody. Recombinant Human Epiregulin (Catalog # 1195-EP) stimulates proliferation in the Balb/3T3 mouse embryonic fibroblast cell line in a dose-dependent manner (orange line). Proliferation elicited by Recombinant Human Epiregulin (5  ng/mL) is neutralized (green line) by increasing concentrations of Goat Anti-Human Epiregulin Antigen Affinity-purified Polyclonal Antibody (Catalog # AF1195). The ND50 is typically 0.3-1.5 µg/mL.

Immunohistochemistry
Epiregulin in Human Skin. Epiregulin was detected in immersion fixed paraffin-embedded sections of human skin using Goat Anti-Human Epiregulin Antigen Affinity-purified Polyclonal Antibody (Catalog # AF1195) at 15 µg/mL overnight at 4 °C. Tissue was stained using the Anti-Goat HRP-DAB Cell & Tissue Staining Kit (brown; Catalog # CTS008) and counterstained with hematoxylin (blue). Specific staining was localized to keratinocytes. View our protocol for Chromogenic IHC Staining of Paraffin-embedded Tissue Sections.
Preparation and Storage
  • Reconstitution
    Reconstitute at 0.2 mg/mL in sterile PBS.
  • Shipping
    The product is shipped at ambient temperature. Upon receipt, store it immediately at the temperature recommended below. *Small pack size (SP) is shipped with polar packs. Upon receipt, store it immediately at -20 to -70 °C
  • Stability & Storage
    Use a manual defrost freezer and avoid repeated freeze-thaw cycles.
    • 12 months from date of receipt, -20 to -70 °C as supplied.
    • 1 month, 2 to 8 °C under sterile conditions after reconstitution.
    • 6 months, -20 to -70 °C under sterile conditions after reconstitution.
Background: Epiregulin

Epiregulin is a member of the EGF family of growth factors which includes, among others, epidermal growth factor (EGF), transforming growth factor (TGF)-alpha, amphiregulin (ARG), HB (heparin-binding)-EGF, betacellulin, and the various heregulins. All EGF family members are synthesized as transmembrane precursors and are converted to soluble forms by proteolytic cleavage. Epiregulin was originally purified from the mouse fibroblast-derived tumor cell line NIH3T3/T7. The human epiregulin cDNA encodes a 169 amino acid (aa) residues transmembrane precursor with a 29 aa signal peptide, a 21 aa transmembrane domain and a 21 aa cytoplasmic domain. The putative soluble mature Epiregulin comprising the EGF-like domain (aa residues 64-104) is formed by proteolytic removal of the propeptide regions. There is 85% aa sequence homology between human and mouse epiregulins. Epiregulin is expressed primarily in the placenta and macrophages. High level expression has also been detected in various carcinomas. Epiregulin specifically binds EGF R (ErbB1) and ErbB4 but not ErbB2 and ErbB3. It activates the homodimers of both ErbB1 and ErbB4. In addition, epiregulin can also activate all possible heteromeric combinations of the four ErbB family members. Epiregulin stimulates the proliferation of fibroblasts, smooth muscle cells and hepatocytes. It has been shown to be an autocrine growth factor for epidermal keratinocytes as well as mesangial cells. Epiregulin has also been shown to inhibit growth of several epithelial tumor cells. In addition, Epiregulin has been implicated in the implantation process during pregnancy.

  • Entrez Gene IDs:
    2069 (Human); 13874 (Mouse)
  • Alternate Names:
    Epiregulin; ER; EREG; proepiregulin
Related Research Areas
Citations:

R&D Systems personnel manually curate a database that contains references using R&D Systems products. The data collected includes not only links to publications in PubMed, but also provides information about sample types, species, and experimental conditions.

6 Citations: Showing 1 - 6
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Species
Applications
Sample Type
  1. Tumor endothelial cells promote metastasis and cancer stem cell-like phenotype through elevated Epiregulin in esophageal cancer
    Am J Cancer Res, 2016;6(10):2277-2288.
    Species: Human
    Sample Type: Cell Lysates
    Application: WB
  2. High epiregulin expression in human U87 glioma cells relies on IRE1alpha and promotes autocrine growth through EGF receptor.
    Authors: Auf G, Jabouille A, Delugin M, Guerit S, Pineau R, North S, Platonova N, Maitre M, Favereaux A, Vajkoczy P, Seno M, Bikfalvi A, Minchenko D, Minchenko O, Moenner M
    BMC Cancer, 2013;13(0):597.
    Species: Human
    Sample Type: Cell Culture Supernates
    Application: ELISA Development
  3. Epiregulin as a marker for the initial steps of ovarian cancer development.
    Authors: Amsterdam A, Shezen E, Raanan C
    Int. J. Oncol., 2011;39(5):1165-72.
    Species: Human
    Sample Type: Whole Tissue
    Application: IHC Paraffin-embedded
  4. HER family receptor abnormalities in lung cancer brain metastases and corresponding primary tumors.
    Authors: Sun M, Behrens C, Feng L, Ozburn N, Tang X, Yin G, Komaki R, Varella-Garcia M, Hong WK, Aldape KD, Wistuba II
    Clin. Cancer Res., 2009;15(15):4829-37.
    Species: Human
    Sample Type: Whole Tissue
    Application: IHC Paraffin-embedded
  5. Human trophoblast survival at low oxygen concentrations requires metalloproteinase-mediated shedding of heparin-binding EGF-like growth factor.
    Authors: Armant DR, Kilburn BA, Petkova A, Edwin SS, Duniec-Dmuchowski ZM, Edwards HJ, Romero R, Leach RE
    Development, 2006;133(4):751-9.
    Species: Human
    Sample Type: Whole Cells
    Application: ICC
  6. Autocrine extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) activation in normal human keratinocytes: metalloproteinase-mediated release of amphiregulin triggers signaling from ErbB1 to ERK.
    Authors: Kansra S, Johnson JL
    Mol. Biol. Cell, 2004;15(9):4299-309.
    Species: Human
    Sample Type: Whole Cells
    Application: Neut
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