Recombinant Rat TNF-alpha Protein

Formulations:
Catalog # Availability Size / Price Qty
510-RT-010
510-RT-050
Product Details
Citations (53)
FAQs
Reviews (2)

Recombinant Rat TNF-alpha Protein Summary

Purity
>97%, by SDS-PAGE under reducing conditions and visualized by silver stain
Endotoxin Level
<0.1 EU per 1 μg of the protein by the LAL method.
Activity
Measured in a cytotoxicity assay using L‑929 mouse fibroblast cells in the presence of the metabolic inhibitor actinomycin D. Matthews, N. and M.L. Neale (1987) in Lymphokines and Interferons, A Practical Approach. Clemens, M.J. et al. (eds): IRL Press. 221. The ED50 for this effect is 4-20 pg/mL.
Source
E. coli-derived rat TNF-alpha protein
Leu80-Leu235, with an N-terminal Met
Accession #
N-terminal Sequence
Analysis
Met
Predicted Molecular Mass
17 kDa

Product Datasheets

Carrier Free

What does CF mean?

CF stands for Carrier Free (CF). We typically add Bovine Serum Albumin (BSA) as a carrier protein to our recombinant proteins. Adding a carrier protein enhances protein stability, increases shelf-life, and allows the recombinant protein to be stored at a more dilute concentration. The carrier free version does not contain BSA.

What formulation is right for me?

In general, we advise purchasing the recombinant protein with BSA for use in cell or tissue culture, or as an ELISA standard. In contrast, the carrier free protein is recommended for applications, in which the presence of BSA could interfere.

510-RT

Formulation Lyophilized from a 0.2 μm filtered solution in PBS and DTT with BSA as a carrier protein.
Reconstitution Reconstitute at 10 μg/mL in sterile PBS containing at least 0.1% human or bovine serum albumin.
Shipping The product is shipped at ambient temperature. Upon receipt, store it immediately at the temperature recommended below.
Stability & Storage: Use a manual defrost freezer and avoid repeated freeze-thaw cycles.
  • 12 months from date of receipt, -20 to -70 °C as supplied.
  • 1 month, 2 to 8 °C under sterile conditions after reconstitution.
  • 3 months, -20 to -70 °C under sterile conditions after reconstitution.

510-RT/CF

Formulation Lyophilized from a 0.2 μm filtered solution in PBS and DTT.
Reconstitution Reconstitute at 100 μg/mL in sterile PBS.
Shipping The product is shipped at ambient temperature. Upon receipt, store it immediately at the temperature recommended below.
Stability & Storage: Use a manual defrost freezer and avoid repeated freeze-thaw cycles.
  • 12 months from date of receipt, -20 to -70 °C as supplied.
  • 1 month, 2 to 8 °C under sterile conditions after reconstitution.
  • 3 months, -20 to -70 °C under sterile conditions after reconstitution.
Reconstitution Calculator

Reconstitution Calculator

The reconstitution calculator allows you to quickly calculate the volume of a reagent to reconstitute your vial. Simply enter the mass of reagent and the target concentration and the calculator will determine the rest.

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Background: TNF-alpha

Tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha ), also known as cachectin and TNFSF2, is the prototypic ligand of the TNF superfamily. It is a pleiotropic molecule that plays a central role in inflammation, immune system development, apoptosis, and lipid metabolism (1, 2). Rat TNF-alpha consisits of a 35 amino acid (aa) cytoplasmic domain, a 21 aa transmembrane segment, and a 179 aa extracellular domain (ECD) (3). Within the ECD, rat TNF-alpha shares 94% aa sequence identity with mouse and 69%-76% with bovine, canine, cotton rat, equine, feline, human, porcine, and rhesus TNF-alpha. TNF-alpha is produced by a wide variety of immune, epithelial, endothelial, and tumor cells (1, 2). TNF-alpha is assembled intracellularly to form a noncovalently linked homotrimer which is expressed on the cell surface (4). Cell surface TNF-alpha can induce the lysis of neighboring tumor cells and virus infected cells, and it can generate its own downstream cell signaling following ligation by soluble TNFR I (2, 5). Shedding of membrane bound TNF-alpha by TACE/ADAM17 releases the bioactive cytokine, a 55 kDa soluble trimer of the TNF-alpha extracellular domain (6-8). TNF-alpha binds the ubiquitous 55-60 kDa TNF RI (9, 10) and the hematopoietic cell-restricted 80 kDa TNF RII (11, 12), both of which are also expressed as homotrimers (1, 2, 13). Both type I and type II receptors bind TNF-alpha with comparable affinity (14), although only TNF RI contains a cytoplasmic death domain which triggers the activation of apoptosis. Soluble forms of both types of receptors are released and can neutralize the biological activity of TNF-alpha (15).

References
  1. Zelova, H. and J. Hosek (2013) Inflamm. Res. 62:641.
  2. Juhasz, K. et al. (2013) Expert Rev. Clin. Immunol. 9:335.
  3. Shirai, T. et al. (1989) Agric. Biol. Chem. 53:1733.
  4. Tang, P. et al. (1996) Biochemistry 35:8216.
  5. Perez, C. et al. (1990) Cell 63:251.
  6. Black, R.A. et al. (1997) Nature 385:729.
  7. Moss, M.L. et al. (1997) Nature 385:733.
  8. Gearing, A.J.H. et al. (1994) Nature 370:555.
  9. Schall, T.J. et al. (1990) Cell 61:361.
  10. Loetscher, H. et al. (1990) Cell 61:351.
  11. Dembic, Z. et al. (1990) Cytokine 2:231.
  12. Smith, C.A. et al. (1990) Science 248:1019.
  13. Loetscher, H. et al. (1991) J. Biol. Chem. 266:18324.
  14. Pinckard, J.K. et al. (1997) J. Biol. Chem. 272:10784.
  15. Engelmann, H. et al. (1990) J. Biol. Chem. 265:1531.
Long Name
Tumor Necrosis Factor alpha
Entrez Gene IDs
7124 (Human); 21926 (Mouse); 24835 (Rat); 397086 (Porcine); 280943 (Bovine); 403922 (Canine); 100033834 (Equine); 493755 (Feline); 100009088 (Rabbit)
Alternate Names
APC1 protein; Cachectin; Cachetin; DIF; TNF; TNF, monocyte-derived; tnfa; tnf-a; TNFalpha; TNF-alpha; TNF-alphacachectin; TNFATNF, macrophage-derived; TNFSF1A; TNFSF2; TNFSF2TNF superfamily, member 2; tumor necrosis factor (TNF superfamily, member 2); tumor necrosis factor alpha; Tumor necrosis factor ligand superfamily member 2; tumor necrosis factor; tumor necrosis factor-alpha

Citations for Recombinant Rat TNF-alpha Protein

R&D Systems personnel manually curate a database that contains references using R&D Systems products. The data collected includes not only links to publications in PubMed, but also provides information about sample types, species, and experimental conditions.

53 Citations: Showing 1 - 10
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  1. Microglia Responses to Pro-inflammatory Stimuli (LPS, IFN?+TNF?) and Reprogramming by Resolving Cytokines (IL-4, IL-10)
    Authors: S Lively, LC Schlichter
    Front Cell Neurosci, 2018;12(0):215.
    Species: Rat
    Sample Types: Whole Cells
    Applications: Bioassay
  2. TSG-6 secreted by bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells attenuates intervertebral disc degeneration by inhibiting the TLR2/NF-?B signaling pathway
    Authors: H Yang, W Tian, S Wang, X Liu, Z Wang, L Hou, J Ge, X Zhang, Z He, X Wang
    Lab. Invest., 2018;0(0):.
    Species: Rat
    Sample Types: Whole Cells
    Applications: Bioassay
  3. The role of transcriptional factor D-site-binding protein in circadian CCL2 gene expression in anti-Thy1 nephritis
    Authors: Y Lu, Y Mei, L Chen, L Wu, X Wang, Y Zhang, B Fu, X Chen, Y Xie, G Cai, X Bai, Q Li, X Chen
    Cell. Mol. Immunol., 2018;0(0):.
    Species: Rat
    Sample Types: Whole Cells
    Applications: Bioassay
  4. Anti-Diabetic Effects of Acankoreagenin from the Leaves of Acanthopanax Gracilistylus Herb in RIN-m5F Cells via Suppression of NF-?B Activation
    Authors: MX Lu, Y Yang, QP Zou, J Luo, BB Zhang, XQ Liu, EH Hwang
    Molecules, 2018;23(4):.
    Species: Rat
    Sample Types: Whole Cells
    Applications: Bioassay
  5. Wound healing protects against chemotherapy-induced alopecia in young rats via up-regulating interleukin-1?-mediated signaling
    Authors: O Stojadinov, TC Wikramanay, AC Villasante, NC Yin, L Liang, E Hinde, J Escandon, M Tomic-Cani, DM Ansell, R Paus, JJ Jimenez
    Heliyon, 2017;3(5):e00309.
    Species: Rat
    Sample Types: In Vivo
    Applications: In Vivo
  6. Inhibition of Autophagic Degradation Process Contributes to Claudin-2 Expression Increase and Epithelial Tight Junction Dysfunction in TNF-� Treated Cell Monolayers
    Authors: C Zhang, J Yan, Y Xiao, Y Shen, J Wang, W Ge, Y Chen
    Int J Mol Sci, 2017;18(1):.
    Species: Human
    Sample Types: Whole Cells
    Applications: Bioassay
  7. A neuropeptide, Substance-P, directly induces tissue-repairing M2 like macrophages by activating the PI3K/Akt/mTOR pathway even in the presence of IFN?
    Authors: JE Lim, E Chung, Y Son
    Sci Rep, 2017;7(1):9417.
    Species: Rat
    Sample Types: Whole Cells
    Applications: Bioassay
  8. Loss of MURC/Cavin-4 induces JNK and MMP-9 activity enhancement in vascular smooth muscle cells and exacerbates abdominal aortic aneurysm
    Authors: K Miyagawa, T Ogata, T Ueyama, T Kasahara, N Nakanishi, D Naito, T Taniguchi, T Hamaoka, N Maruyama, M Nishi, T Kimura, H Yamada, H Aoki, S Matoba
    Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun., 2017;0(0):.
    Species: Rat
    Sample Types: Whole Cells
    Applications: Bioassay
  9. CETSA quantitatively verifies in vivo target engagement of novel RIPK1 inhibitors in various biospecimens
    Authors: T Ishii, T Okai, M Iwatani-Yo, M Mochizuki, S Unno, M Kuno, M Yoshikawa, S Shibata, M Nakakariya, T Yogo, T Kawamoto
    Sci Rep, 2017;7(1):13000.
    Species: Mouse
    Sample Types: Whole Cells
    Applications: Bioassay
  10. Cobrotoxin extracted from Naja atra venom relieves arthritis symptoms through anti-inflammation and immunosuppression effects in rat arthritis model
    Authors: Fang Lin
    J Ethnopharmacol, 2016;0(0):.
    Species: Rat
    Sample Types: Whole Cells
    Applications: Bioassay
  11. Curcumin inhibits glial scar formation by suppressing astrocyte-induced inflammation and fibrosis in vitro and in vivo
    Authors: Jiangkai Lin
    Brain Res., 2016;0(0):.
    Species: Rat
    Sample Types: Whole Cells
    Applications: Bioassay
  12. Microglial activation enhances associative taste memory through purinergic modulation of glutamatergic neurotransmission.
    Authors: Delpech J, Saucisse N, Parkes S, Lacabanne C, Aubert A, Casenave F, Coutureau E, Sans N, Laye S, Ferreira G, Nadjar A
    J Neurosci, 2015;35(7):3022-33.
    Species: Rat
    Sample Types: In Vivo
    Applications: In Vivo
  13. Expression of leukemia inhibitory factor in Muller glia cells is regulated by a redox-dependent mRNA stability mechanism.
    Authors: Agca C, Boldt K, Gubler A, Meneau I, Corpet A, Samardzija M, Stucki M, Ueffing M, Grimm C
    BMC Biol, 2015;13(0):30.
    Species: Rat
    Sample Types: Whole Cells
    Applications: Bioassay
  14. HLA-B27-Homodimer-Specific Antibody Modulates the Expansion of Pro-Inflammatory T-Cells in HLA-B27 Transgenic Rats.
    Authors: Marroquin Belaunzaran O, Kleber S, Schauer S, Hausmann M, Nicholls F, van den Broek M, Payeli S, Ciurea A, Milling S, Stenner F, Shaw J, Kollnberger S, Bowness P, Petrausch U, Renner C
    PLoS ONE, 2015;10(6):e0130811.
    Species: Rat
    Sample Types: Whole Cells
    Applications: Bioassay
  15. Accounting for the delay in the transition from acute to chronic pain: axonal and nuclear mechanisms.
    Authors: Ferrari L, Bogen O, Reichling D, Levine J
    J Neurosci, 2015;35(2):495-507.
    Species: Rat
    Sample Types: In Vivo
    Applications: In Vivo
  16. Neuropathic pain is constitutively suppressed in early life by anti-inflammatory neuroimmune regulation.
    Authors: McKelvey R, Berta T, Old E, Ji R, Fitzgerald M
    J Neurosci, 2015;35(2):457-66.
    Species: Mouse
    Sample Types: In Vivo
    Applications: In Vivo
  17. Distinct terminal and cell body mechanisms in the nociceptor mediate hyperalgesic priming.
    Authors: Ferrari L, Araldi D, Levine J
    J Neurosci, 2015;35(15):6107-16.
    Species: Rat
    Sample Types: In Vivo
    Applications: In Vivo
  18. Inflammation induces irreversible biophysical changes in isolated nucleus pulposus cells.
    Authors: Maidhof R, Jacobsen T, Papatheodorou A, Chahine N
    PLoS ONE, 2014;9(6):e99621.
    Species: Bovine
    Sample Types: Whole Cells
    Applications: Bioassay
  19. Ceruloplasmin potentiates nitric oxide synthase activity and cytokine secretion in activated microglia.
    Authors: Lazzaro M, Bettegazzi B, Barbariga M, Codazzi F, Zacchetti D, Alessio M
    J Neuroinflammation, 2014;11(0):164.
    Species: Rat
    Sample Types: Whole Cells
    Applications: Bioassay
  20. Unbiased expression mapping identifies a link between the complement and cholinergic systems in the rat central nervous system.
    Authors: Lindblom R, Strom M, Heinig M, Al Nimer F, Aeinehband S, Berg A, Dominguez C, Vijayaraghavan S, Zhang X, Harnesk K, Zelano J, Hubner N, Cullheim S, Darreh-Shori T, Diez M, Piehl F
    J Immunol, 2014;192(3):1138-53.
    Species: Rat
    Sample Types: Whole Cells
    Applications: Bioassay
  21. Galectin-9 protein is up-regulated in astrocytes by tumor necrosis factor and promotes encephalitogenic T-cell apoptosis.
    Authors: Steelman A, Smith R, Welsh C, Li J
    J Biol Chem, 2014;288(33):23776-87.
    Species: Rat
    Sample Types: Whole Cells
    Applications: Bioassay
  22. Adrenocorticotropic hormone ameliorates acute kidney injury by steroidogenic-dependent and -independent mechanisms.
    Authors: Si J, Ge Y, Zhuang S, Wang L, Chen S, Gong R
    Kidney Int, 2013;83(4):635-46.
    Species: Rat
    Sample Types: Whole Cells
    Applications: Bioassay
  23. Neuronal synapse formation induced by microglia and interleukin 10.
    Authors: Lim S, Park E, You B, Jung Y, Park A, Park S, Lee J
    PLoS ONE, 2013;8(11):e81218.
    Species: Rat
    Sample Types: Whole Cells
    Applications: cell culture
  24. Astrocytes acquire resistance to iron-dependent oxidative stress upon proinflammatory activation.
    Authors: Macco R, Pelizzoni I, Consonni A, Vitali I, Giacalone G, Martinelli Boneschi F, Codazzi F, Grohovaz F, Zacchetti D
    J Neuroinflammation, 2013;10(0):130.
    Species: Rat
    Sample Types: Whole Cells
    Applications: Bioassay
  25. Regulation of NOX-1 expression in beta cells: a positive feedback loop involving the Src-kinase signaling pathway.
    Authors: Weaver J, Taylor-Fishwick D
    Mol Cell Endocrinol, 2013;369(1):35-41.
    Species: Rat
    Sample Types: Whole Cells
    Applications: Bioassay
  26. Glial tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha) generates metaplastic inhibition of spinal learning.
    Authors: Huie JR, Baumbauer KM, Lee KH, Bresnahan JC, Beattie MS, Ferguson AR, Grau JW
    PLoS ONE, 2012;7(6):e39751.
    Species: Rat
    Sample Types: In Vivo
    Applications: In Vivo
  27. Inhibiting nonmuscle myosin II impedes inflammatory infiltration and ameliorates progressive renal disease.
    Authors: Si J, Ge Y, Zhuang S, Gong R
    Lab. Invest., 2010;90(3):448-58.
    Species: Rat
    Sample Types: In Vivo
    Applications: In Vivo
  28. IL-1beta receptor blockade protects islets against pro-inflammatory cytokine induced necrosis and apoptosis.
    Authors: Schwarznau A, Hanson MS, Sperger JM, Schram BR, Danobeitia JS, Greenwood KK, Vijayan A, Fernandez LA
    J. Cell. Physiol., 2009;220(2):341-7.
    Species: Rat
    Sample Types: Whole Cells
    Applications: Bioassay
  29. Distribution and tumor necrosis factor-alpha isoform binding specificity of locally administered etanercept into injured and uninjured rat sciatic nerve.
    Authors: Kato K, Kikuchi S, Shubayev VI, Myers RR
    Neuroscience, 2009;160(2):492-500.
    Species: N/A
    Sample Types: N/A
    Applications: WB Ctrl
  30. Cytokine mRNA induction by interleukin-1beta or tumor necrosis factor alpha in vitro and in vivo.
    Authors: Taishi P, Churchill L, De A, Obal F, Krueger JM
    Brain Res., 2008;1226(0):89-98.
    Species: Rat
    Sample Types: In Vivo
    Applications: In Vivo
  31. Tumor necrosis factor alpha enhances the sensitivity of rat trigeminal neurons to capsaicin.
    Authors: Khan AA, Diogenes A, Jeske NA, Henry MA, Akopian A, Hargreaves KM
    Neuroscience, 2008;155(2):503-9.
    Species: Rat
    Sample Types: In Vivo
    Applications: In Vivo
  32. Supraspinal glial-neuronal interactions contribute to descending pain facilitation.
    Authors: Wei F, Guo W, Zou S, Ren K, Dubner R
    J. Neurosci., 2008;28(42):10482-95.
    Species: Rat
    Sample Types: In Vivo
    Applications: In Vivo
  33. A shed form of LDL receptor-related protein-1 regulates peripheral nerve injury and neuropathic pain in rodents.
    Authors: Gaultier A, Arandjelovic S, Li X, Janes J, Dragojlovic N, Zhou GP, Dolkas J, Myers RR, Gonias SL, Campana WM
    J. Clin. Invest., 2008;118(1):161-72.
    Species: Rat
    Sample Types: Whole Cells
    Applications: Bioassay
  34. Regulation of tumor necrosis factor receptor-1 and the IKK-NF-kappaB pathway by LDL receptor-related protein explains the antiinflammatory activity of this receptor.
    Authors: Gaultier A, Arandjelovic S, Niessen S, Overton CD, Linton MF, Fazio S, Campana WM, Cravatt BF, Gonias SL
    Blood, 2008;111(11):5316-25.
    Species: Mouse
    Sample Types: Whole Cells
    Applications: Binding Assay
  35. Rat pneumonia and soft-tissue infection models for the study of Acinetobacter baumannii biology.
    Authors: Russo TA, Beanan JM, Olson R, MacDonald U, Luke NR, Gill SR, Campagnari AA
    Infect. Immun., 2008;76(8):3577-86.
    Species: N/A
    Sample Types: N/A
    Applications: ELISA Standard
  36. Inhibition of rho family functions by lovastatin promotes myelin repair in ameliorating experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis.
    Authors: Paintlia AS, Paintlia MK, Singh AK, Singh I
    Mol. Pharmacol., 2008;73(5):1381-93.
    Species: Rat
    Sample Types: Whole Cells
    Applications: Bioassay
  37. Tumor necrosis factor alpha: activity dependent expression and promotion of cortical column sleep in rats.
    Authors: Churchill L, Rector DM, Yasuda K, Fix C, Rojas MJ, Yasuda T, Krueger JM
    Neuroscience, 2008;156(1):71-80.
    Species: Rat
    Sample Types: In Vivo
    Applications: In Vivo
  38. Deleterious role of TNF-alpha in retinal ischemia-reperfusion injury.
    Authors: Berger S, Savitz SI, Nijhawan S, Singh M, David J, Rosenbaum PS, Rosenbaum DM
    Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci., 2008;49(8):3605-10.
    Species: Rat
    Sample Types: In Vivo
    Applications: In Vivo
  39. Hydralazine reduces leukocyte migration through different mechanisms in spontaneously hypertensive and normotensive rats.
    Authors: Rodrigues SF, de Oliveira MA, Dos Santos RA, Soares AG, de Cassia Tostes R, Carvalho MH, Fortes ZB
    Eur. J. Pharmacol., 2008;589(1):206-14.
    Species: Rat
    Sample Types: In Vivo
    Applications: In Vivo
  40. Cell death after spinal cord injury is exacerbated by rapid TNF alpha-induced trafficking of GluR2-lacking AMPARs to the plasma membrane.
    Authors: Ferguson AR, Christensen RN, Gensel JC, Miller BA, Sun F, Beattie EC, Bresnahan JC, Beattie MS
    J. Neurosci., 2008;28(44):11391-400.
  41. TNFalpha and TNF receptor 1 expression in the mixed neuronal-glial cultures of hippocampal dentate gyrus exposed to glutamate or trimethyltin.
    Authors: Figiel I, Dzwonek K
    Brain Res., 2007;1131(1):17-28.
    Species: N/A
    Sample Types: N/A
    Applications: WB Ctrl
  42. Central blockade of melanocortin receptors attenuates the metabolic and locomotor responses to peripheral interleukin-1beta administration.
    Authors: Whitaker KW, Reyes TM
    Neuropharmacology, 2007;54(3):509-20.
    Species: Rat
    Sample Types: In Vivo
    Applications: In Vivo
  43. Discovery of S-[5-amino-1-(4-fluorophenyl)-1H-pyrazol-4-yl]-[3-(2,3-dihydroxypropoxy)phenyl]methanone (RO3201195), an orally bioavailable and highly selective inhibitor of p38 MAP kinase.
    Authors: Goldstein DM, Alfredson T, Bertrand J, Browner MF, Clifford K, Dalrymple SA, Dunn J, Freire-Moar J, Harris S, Labadie SS, La Fargue J, Lapierre JM, Larrabee S, Li F, Papp E, McWeeney D, Ramesha C, Roberts R, Rotstein D, San Pablo B, Sjogren EB, So OY, Talamas FX, Tao W, Trejo A, Villasenor A, Welch M, Welch T, Weller P, Whiteley PE, Young K, Zipfel S
    J. Med. Chem., 2006;49(5):1562-75.
    Species: Rat
    Sample Types: In Vivo
    Applications: In Vivo
  44. The injury response of oligodendrocyte precursor cells is induced by platelets, macrophages and inflammation-associated cytokines.
    Authors: Rhodes KE, Raivich G, Fawcett JW
    Neuroscience, 2006;140(1):87-100.
    Species: Rat
    Sample Types: In Vivo
    Applications: In Vivo
  45. TNFalpha-induced MMP-9 promotes macrophage recruitment into injured peripheral nerve.
    Authors: Shubayev VI, Angert M, Dolkas J, Campana WM, Palenscar K, Myers RR
    Mol. Cell. Neurosci., 2006;31(3):407-15.
    Species: N/A
    Sample Types: N/A
    Applications: WB Ctrl
  46. Peptide YY attenuates STAT1 and STAT3 activation induced by TNF-alpha in acinar cell line AR42J.
    Authors: Robinson K, Vona-Davis L, Riggs D
    J. Am. Coll. Surg., 2006;202(5):788-96.
    Species: Rat
    Sample Types: Whole Cells
    Applications: Bioassay
  47. P2Y1 receptor-evoked glutamate exocytosis from astrocytes: control by tumor necrosis factor-alpha and prostaglandins.
    Authors: Domercq M, Brambilla L, Pilati E, Marchaland J, Volterra A, Bezzi P
    J. Biol. Chem., 2006;281(41):30684-96.
    Species: Rat
    Sample Types: Whole Cells
    Applications: Bioassay
  48. In vivo modulation of LPS-induced alterations in brain and peripheral cytokines and HPA axis activity by cannabinoids.
    Authors: Roche M, Diamond M, Finn DP
    J. Neuroimmunol., 2006;181(1):57-67.
  49. Cytokine regulation of MMP-9 in peripheral glia: implications for pathological processes and pain in injured nerve.
    Authors: Chattopadhyay S, Myers RR, Janes J, Shubayev V
    Brain Behav. Immun., 2006;21(5):561-8.
    Species: Rat
    Sample Types: In Vivo
    Applications: In Vivo
  50. Inflammatory signalling pathways involved in astroglial activation by unconjugated bilirubin.
    Authors: Fernandes A, Falcao AS, Silva RF, Gordo AC, Gama MJ, Brito MA, Brites D
    J. Neurochem., 2006;96(6):1667-79.
    Species: Rat
    Sample Types: Whole Cells
    Applications: Bioassay
  51. Differential cytokine response in interstitial fluid in skin and serum during experimental inflammation in rats.
    Authors: Nedrebo T, Reed RK, Jonsson R, Berg A, Wiig H
    J. Physiol. (Lond.), 2004;556(0):193-202.
    Species: Rat
    Sample Types: In Vivo
    Applications: In Vivo
  52. Glucocorticoids play a fundamental role in protecting the brain during innate immune response.
    Authors: Nadeau S, Rivest S
    J. Neurosci., 2003;23(13):5536-44.
    Species: Rat
    Sample Types: In Vivo
    Applications: In Vivo
  53. In altering the release of glucocorticoids, ketorolac exacerbates the effects of systemic immune stimuli on expression of proinflammatory genes in the brain.
    Authors: Blais V, Zhang J, Rivest S
    Endocrinology, 2002;143(12):4820-7.
    Species: Rat
    Sample Types: In Vivo
    Applications: In Vivo

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Recombinant Rat TNF-alpha Protein
By Anonymous on 11/08/2017
Application: Immunoassay Standard

This recombinant protein was used to build a standard curve for an ELISA. The ELISA was used to measure TNF-alpha in rat plasma samples.


Recombinant Rat TNF-alpha Protein
By Anonymous on 09/01/2016
Application: In vitro bioactivity in cell culture