Catalog Number: 1614
Chemical Name: 4-[4-(1,3-benzodioxol-5-yl)-5-(2-pyridinyl)-1H-imidazol-2-yl]benzamide
Biological Activity
Potent and selective inhibitor of the transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) type I receptor activin receptor-like kinase ALK5 (IC50 = 94 nM), and its relatives ALK4 and ALK7. Suppresses TGF-β-induced proliferation of human osteosarcoma cells. Stimulates proliferation, differentiation and sheet formation of ESC-derived endothelial cells. Inhibits TGF-β-induced EMT, migration, invasion and VEGF secretion in several human cancer cell lines.
Technical Data
  • M.Wt:
  • Formula:
  • Solubility:
    Soluble to 10 mM in ethanol and to 100 mM in DMSO
  • Purity:
  • Storage:
    Store at RT
  • CAS No:
The technical data provided above is for guidance only. For batch specific data refer to the Certificate of Analysis. All Tocris products are intended for laboratory research use only.
Additional Information
Licensing Caveats:
Sold for research purposes under agreement from GlaxoSmithKline
Background References
  1. Inhibition of transforming growth factor (TGF)-β1-induced extracellular matrix with a novel inhibitor of the TGF-β type I receptor kinase activity: SB-431542.
    Laping et al.
    Mol.Pharmacol., 2002;62:58
  2. SB-431542 is a potent and specific inhibitor of transforming growth factor-β superfamily type I activin receptor-like kinase (ALK) receptors ALK4, ALK5, and ALK7.
    Inman et al.
    Mol.Pharmacol., 2002;62:65
  3. SB-431542 and Gleevec inhibit transforming growth factor-β-induced proliferation of human osteosarcoma cells.
    Matsuyama et al.
    Cancer Res., 2003;63:7791
  4. TGF-beta receptor kinase inhibitor enhances growth and integrity of embryonic stem cell-derived endothelial cells.
    Watabe et al.
    J.Cell Biol., 2003;163:163
  5. A specific inhibitor of TGF-beta receptor kinase, SB-431542, as a potent antitumor agent for human cancers.
    Halder et al.
    Neoplasia, 2005;7:509

The citations listed below are publications that use Tocris products. Selected citations for SB 431542 include:

Showing Results 1 - 10 of 135

  1. Bronchoconstriction Induces TGF-β Release and Airway Remodelling in Guinea Pig Lung Slices.
    Authors: Oenema Et al.
    Stem Cells
  2. Distinct and shared functions of ALS-associated proteins TDP-43, FUS and TAF15 revealed by multisystem analyses
    Authors: Kapeli Et al.
    Nature Communications
  3. Activation of the TGFβ pathway impairs endothelial to haematopoietic transition.
    Authors: Vargel Et al.
    Nat Protoc
  4. Generating trunk neural crest from human pluripotent stem cells.
    Authors: Huang Et al.
    Sci Rep
  5. The Epstein-Barr virus encoded LMP1 oncoprotein modulates cell adhesion via regulation of activin A/TGFβ and β1 integrin signalling.
    Authors: Morris Et al.
    Mol Cell Biol
  6. Dual SMAD Signaling Inhibition Enables Long-Term Expansion of Diverse Epithelial Basal Cells
    Authors: Mou Et al.
    Cell: Stem Cell
  7. Human cytomegalovirus infection interferes with the maintenance and differentiation of trophoblast progenitor cells of the human placenta.
    Authors: Tabata Et al.
    Sci Rep
  8. Generation of functional hippocampal neurons from self-organizing human embryonic stem cell-derived dorsomedial telencephalic tissue.
    Authors: Sakaguchi Et al.
    Mol Neurobiol
  9. Alk1 and Alk5 inhibition by Nrp1 controls vascular sprouting downstream of Notch.
    Authors: Aspalter Et al.
    Nat Commun
  10. The Nodal signaling pathway controls left-right asymmetric development in amphioxus.
    Authors: Soukup Et al.
    J Clin Invest
  11. Human-induced pluripotent stem cells generated from intervertebral disc cells improve neurologic functions in spinal cord injury.
    Authors: Oh Et al.
    Stem Cell Res Ther
  12. Stimulation of hepatocarcinogenesis by neutrophils upon induction of oncogenic kras expression in transgenic zebrafish.
    Authors: Yan Et al.
    J Hepatol
  13. Naïve-like conversion enhances the difference in innate in vitro differentiation capacity between rabbit ES cells and iPS cells.
    Authors: Honsho Et al.
    BMC Cancer
  14. Successful Generation of Human Induced Pluripotent Stem Cell Lines from Blood Samples Held at Room Temperature for up to 48 hr.
    Authors: Agu Et al.
    Exp Neurol
  15. Cell-Cycle Control of Bivalent Epigenetic Domains Regulates the Exit from Pluripotency.
    Authors: Singh Et al.
    Stem Cells Dev
  16. Fibulin-4 deficiency increases TGF-β signalling in aortic smooth muscle cells due to elevated TGF-β2 levels.
    Authors: Ramnath Et al.
  17. A key role for TGF-β1 in hippocampal synaptic plasticity and memory.
    Authors: Caraci Et al.
    PLoS Comput Biol
  18. Controlling the Regional Identity of hPSC-Derived Neurons to Uncover Neuronal Subtype Specificity of Neurological Disease Phenotypes.
    Authors: Imaizumi Et al.
    J Clin Invest
  19. Inhibition of Excessive Monoamine Oxidase A/B Activity Protects Against Stress-induced Neuronal Death in Huntington Disease.
    Authors: Ooi Et al.
    PLoS One
  20. Generation of an expandable intermediate mesoderm restricted progenitor cell line from human pluripotent stem cells.
    Authors: Kumar Et al.
  21. TGFβ2 regulates hypothalamic Trh expression through the TGFβ inducible early gene-1 (TIEG1) during fetal development.
    Authors: Martínez-Armenta Et al.
    J Clin Invest
  22. Low oxygen alters mitochondrial function and response to oxidative stress in human neural progenitor cells.
    Authors: Lages Et al.
    J Reprod Dev
  23. TGFβ loss activates ADAMTS-1-mediated EGF-dependent invasion in a model of esophageal cell invasion.
    Authors: Bras Et al.
    Mol Med
  24. Axonal amyloid precursor protein and its fragments undergo somatodendritic endocytosis and processing.
    Authors: Niederst Et al.
    Hum Mol Genet
  25. Axonal Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease patient-derived motor neurons demonstrate disease-specific phenotypes including abnormal electrophysiological properties.
    Authors: Saporta Et al.
    Nat Commun
  26. Developmental regulation of tau splicing is disrupted in stem cell-derived neurons from frontotemporal dementia patients with the 10 + 16 splice-site mutation in MAPT.
    Authors: Sposito Et al.
    Stem Cell Reports
  27. Generation of Naivetropic Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells from Parkinson's Disease Patients for High-Efficiency Genetic Manipulation and Disease Modeling.
    Authors: Hu Et al.
    J Virol
  28. Pentoxifylline Attenuates Proteinuria in Anti-Thy1 Glomerulonephritis via Downregulation of Nuclear Factor-κB and Smad2/3 Signaling.
    Authors: Chen Et al.
  29. TEAD and YAP regulate the enhancer network of human embryonic pancreatic progenitors.
    Authors: Cebola Et al.
    Mol Cell Endocrinol
  30. Human embryonic stem cell-derived oligodendrocyte progenitors remyelinate the brain and rescue behavioral deficits following radiation.
    Authors: Piao Et al.
    Cell Stem Cell
  31. The differential anti-tumour effects of zoledronic acid in breast cancer - evidence for a role of the activin signaling pathway.
    Authors: Wilson Et al.
    Sci Rep
  32. Comprehensive analysis of microRNA expression in regionalized human neural progenitor cells reveals microRNA-10 as a caudalizing factor.
    Authors: Jönsson Et al.
    Stem Cell Reports
  33. Early maturation and distinct tau pathology in induced pluripotent stem cell-derived neurons from patients with MAPT mutations.
    Authors: Iovino Et al.
  34. Functional cortical neurons and astrocytes from human pluripotent stem cells in 3D culture.
    Authors: Pasca Et al.
    Nat Methods
  35. MicroRNA-132 enhances transition from inflammation to proliferation during wound healing.
    Authors: Li Et al.
    Sci Rep
  36. Endothelium and NOTCH specify and amplify aorta-gonad-mesonephros-derived hematopoietic stem cells.
    Authors: Hadland Et al.
    Nat Cell Biol
  37. Quantitative Live Imaging of Human Embryonic Stem Cell Derived Neural Rosettes Reveals Structure-Function Dynamics Coupled to Cortical Development.
    Authors: Ziv Et al.
    Mol Biol Cell
  38. TGF-β Negatively Regulates the BMP2-Dependent Early Commitment of Periodontal Ligament Cells into Hard Tissue Forming Cells.
    Authors: Kawahara Et al.
  39. Increased Expression of TGF-β Signaling Components in a Mouse Model of Fibrosis Induced by Submandibular Gland Duct Ligation.
    Authors: Woods Et al.
    PLoS One
  40. SMAD-independent down-regulation of caveolin-1 by TGF-β: effects on proliferation and survival of myofibroblasts.
    Authors: Sanders Et al.
    PLoS One
  41. The in vitro generation of lung and airway progenitor cells from human pluripotent stem cells.
    Authors: Huang Et al.
    Exp Cell Res
  42. Allele-specific knockdown of ALS-associated mutant TDP-43 in neural stem cells derived from induced pluripotent stem cells.
    Authors: Nishimura Et al.
    PLoS One
  43. Stem cell-derived motor neurons from spinal and bulbar muscular atrophy patients.
    Authors: Grunseich Et al.
    Neurobiol Dis
  44. Combining TGF-β signal inhibition and connexin43 silencing for iPSC induction from mouse cardiomyocytes.
    Authors: Dai Et al.
    PLoS One
  45. Immunoevasive pericytes from human pluripotent stem cells preferentially modulate induction of allogeneic regulatory T cells.
    Authors: Domev Et al.
    Stem Cells Transl Med
  46. Selection Based on FOXA2 Expression Is Not Sufficient to Enrich for Dopamine Neurons From Human Pluripotent Stem Cells.
    Authors: Aguila Et al.
    Stem Cells Transl Med
  47. miR-373 is regulated by TGFβ signaling and promotes mesendoderm differentiation in human Embryonic Stem Cells.
    Authors: Rosa Et al.
    Dev Biol
  48. ALK5 and ALK1 play antagonistic roles in transforming growth factor β-induced podosome formation in aortic endothelial cells.
    Authors: Curado Et al.
    Exp Neurol
  49. Efficient generation of lung and airway epithelial cells from human pluripotent stem cells.
    Authors: Huang Et al.
    Nat Biotechnol
  50. A novel suppressive effect of alcohol dehydrogenase 5 in neuronal differentiation.
    Authors: Wu Et al.
    Fibrogenesis Tissue Repair
  51. Ets Related Gene and Smad3 Proteins Collaborate to Activate Transforming Growth Factor-Beta Mediated Signaling Pathway in ETS Related Gene-Positive Prostate Cancer Cells.
    Authors: Fang Et al.
    J Pharm Sci Pharmacol
  52. Investigating the feasibility of scale up and automation of human induced pluripotent stem cells cultured in aggregates in feeder free conditions.
    Authors: Soares Et al.
    Cell Stem Cell
  53. TGFβ-mediated suppression of CD248 in non-cancer cells via canonical Smad-dependent signaling pathways is uncoupled in cancer cells.
    Authors: Babu Et al.
    BMC Cancer
  54. Signals from the surface modulate differentiation of human pluripotent stem cells through glycosaminoglycans and integrins.
    Authors: Wrighton Et al.
    J Cell Sci
  55. Profiling of microRNA in human and mouse ES and iPS cells reveals overlapping but distinct microRNA expression patterns.
    Authors: Razak Et al.
    Nat Neurosci
  56. EMT-induced stemness and tumorigenicity are fueled by the EGFR/Ras pathway.
    Authors: Voon Et al.
    PLoS One
  57. Sustained levels of FGF2 maintain undifferentiated stem cell cultures with biweekly feeding.
    Authors: Lotz Et al.
    PLoS One
  58. Arkadia regulates tumor metastasis by modulation of the TGF-β pathway.
    Authors: Briones-Orta Et al.
    Am J Stem Cells
  59. Generating regionalized neuronal cells from pluripotency, a step-by-step protocol.
    Authors: Kirkeby Et al.
    Front Cell Neurosci
  60. The presenilin-1 δE9 mutation results in reduced γ-secretase activity, but not total loss of PS1 function, in isogenic human stem cells.
    Authors: Woodruff Et al.
    Cell Rep
  61. Translating dosage compensation to trisomy 21.
    Authors: Jiang Et al.
  62. High-power femtosecond-terahertz pulse induces a wound response in mouse skin.
    Authors: Kim Et al.
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A
  63. A robust method to derive functional neural crest cells from human pluripotent stem cells.
    Authors: Kreitzer Et al.
    Nat Methods
  64. Transforming growth factor-β directly induces p53-up-regulated modulator of apoptosis (PUMA) during the rapid induction of apoptosis in myc-driven B-cell lymphomas.
    Authors: Spender Et al.
    J Biol Chem
  65. Naive-like conversion overcomes the limited differentiation capacity of induced pluripotent stem cells.
    Authors: Honda Et al.
    ACS Chem Neurosci
  66. Sox10-MCS5 enhancer dynamically tracks human oligodendrocyte progenitor fate.
    Authors: Pol Et al.
    Stem Cell Res
  67. Acute reduction in oxygen tension enhances the induction of neurons from human fibroblasts.
    Authors: Davila Et al.
    J Neurosci Methods
  68. TGF-β signaling regulates neuronal C1q expression and developmental synaptic refinement.
    Authors: Bialas and
    Nat Neurosci
  69. Identification of repurposed small molecule drugs for chordoma therapy.
    Authors: Xia Et al.
    Cancer Biol Ther
  70. Stepwise, non-adherent differentiation of human pluripotent stem cells to generate basal forebrain cholinergic neurons via hedgehog signaling.
    Authors: Crompton Et al.
    PLoS One
  71. Snail cooperates with KrasG12D to promote pancreatic fibrosis.
    Authors: Shields Et al.
    Mol Cancer Res
  72. Impaired epithelial differentiation of induced pluripotent stem cells from ectodermal dysplasia-related patients is rescued by the small compound APR-246/PRIMA-1MET.
    Authors: Shalom-Feuerstein Et al.
  73. Self-organized vascular networks from human pluripotent stem cells in a synthetic matrix.
    Authors: Kusuma Et al.
    Antimicrob Agents Chemother
  74. A simple tool to improve pluripotent stem cell differentiation.
    Authors: Chetty Et al.
  75. High-throughput screening assay for embryoid body differentiation of human embryonic stem cells.
    Authors: Outten Et al.
    Curr Protoc Stem Cell Biol
  76. Modulation of pluripotency in the porcine embryo and iPS cells.
    Authors: Rodríguez Et al.
    Nat Biotechnol
  77. TGFβ1-induced Baf60c regulates both smooth muscle cell commitment and quiescence.
    Authors: Sohni Et al.
    PLoS One
  78. Transposon-mediated BAC transgenesis in human ES cells.
    Authors: Rostovskaya Et al.
    Nucleic Acids Res
  79. A novel co-operative mechanism linking TGFβ and Lyn kinase activation to imatinib resistance in chronic myeloid leukaemia cells.
    Authors: Smith Et al.
    PLoS One
  80. DMH1, a highly selective small molecule BMP inhibitor promotes neurogenesis of hiPSCs: comparison of PAX6 and SOX1 expression during neural induction.
    Authors: Neely Et al.
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A
  81. Transforming growth factor β inhibits bone morphogenetic protein-induced transcription through novel phosphorylated Smad1/5-Smad3 complexes.
    Authors: Grönroos Et al.
    Mol Cell Biol
  82. Glycogen synthase kinase 3β and activin/nodal inhibition in human embryonic stem cells induces a pre-neuroepithelial state that is required for specification to a floor plate cell lineage.
    Authors: Denham Et al.
    J Neurosci
  83. TGF-β blockade does not improve control of an established persistent viral infection.
    Authors: Boettler Et al.
    Viral Immunol
  84. Small molecules greatly improve conversion of human-induced pluripotent stem cells to the neuronal lineage.
    Authors: Mak Et al.
    Stem Cells Int
  85. Human cerebral cortex development from pluripotent stem cells to functional excitatory synapses.
    Authors: Shi Et al.
    Cancer Res
  86. BMP and TGFbeta pathways in human central chondrosarcoma: enhanced endoglin and Smad 1 signaling in high grade tumors.
    Authors: Boeuf Et al.
    BMC Cancer
  87. Recurrent genomic instability of chromosome 1q in neural derivatives of human embryonic stem cells.
    Authors: Varela Et al.
    Sci Rep
  88. Notch and TGFβ form a reciprocal positive regulatory loop that suppresses murine prostate basal stem/progenitor cell activity.
    Authors: Valdez Et al.
  89. Suppression of activin A signals inhibits growth of malignant pleural mesothelioma cells.
    Authors: Hoda Et al.
    Br J Cancer
  90. Transforming Growth Factor-β1 Antagonizes Interleukin-5 Pro-Survival Signaling by Activating Calpain-1 in Primary Human Eosinophils.
    Authors: Xie Et al.
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A
  91. Tumor-evoked regulatory B cells promote breast cancer metastasis by converting resting CD4+ T cells to T-regulatory cells.
    Authors: Olkhanud Et al.
    Cancer Res
  92. Novel role for STAT3 in transcriptional regulation of NK immune cell targeting receptor MICA on cancer cells.
    Authors: Bedel Et al.
    Cancer Res
  93. Human tumour immune evasion via TGF-β blocks NK cell activation but not survival allowing therapeutic restoration of anti-tumour activity.
    Authors: Wilson Et al.
    PLoS One
  94. Generation of trophoblast stem cells from rabbit embryonic stem cells with BMP4.
    Authors: Tan Et al.
    Nat Cell Biol
  95. Dedifferentiation of immortalized human podocytes in response to transforming growth factor-β: a model for diabetic podocytopathy.
    Authors: Herman-Edelstein Et al.
  96. Thrombospondin 1 is a key mediator of transforming growth factor β-mediated cell contractility in systemic sclerosis via a mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase (MEK)/extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK)-dependent mechanism.
    Authors: Chen Et al.
    PLoS One
  97. Increased transforming growth factor β contributes to deterioration of refrigerated fresh frozen plasma's effects in vitro on endothelial cells.
    Authors: Duan Et al.
    J Clin Cell Immunol
  98. Mitochondrial Parkin recruitment is impaired in neurons derived from mutant PINK1 induced pluripotent stem cells.
    Authors: Seibler Et al.
  99. Reversible differentiation of myofibroblasts by MyoD.
    Authors: Hecker Et al.
    PLoS One
  100. Neural crest cells organize the eye via TGF-β and canonical Wnt signalling.
    Authors: Grocott Et al.
    Stem Cell Reports
  101. Pancreatic cancer cells respond to type I collagen by inducing snail expression to promote membrane type 1 matrix metalloproteinase-dependent collagen invasion.
    Authors: Shields Et al.
    J Biol Chem
  102. β-Catenin-dependent FGF signaling sustains cell survival in the anterior embryonic head by countering Smad4.
    Authors: Paek Et al.
    Dev Cell
  103. A poised chromatin platform for TGF-β access to master regulators.
    Authors: Xi Et al.
    Biochem Biophys Res Commun
  104. Role of TGF-β1 and MAP kinases in the antiproliferative effect of aspirin in human vascular smooth muscle cells.
    Authors: Redondo Et al.
    PLoS One
  105. Regulation of pro-inflammatory and pro-fibrotic factors by CCN2/CTGF in H9c2 cardiomyocytes.
    Authors: Wang Et al.
    Nat Commun
  106. Phosphorylation of Junb family proteins by the Jun N-terminal kinase supports tissue regeneration in zebrafish.
    Authors: Ishida Et al.
    Dev Biol
  107. Tumor-supportive and osteoclastogenic changes induced by breast cancer-derived factors are reversed by inhibition of {gamma}-secretase.
    Authors: Fong Et al.
    J Biol Chem
  108. Autocrine transforming growth factor-{beta}1 activation mediated by integrin {alpha}V{beta}3 regulates transcriptional expression of laminin-332 in Madin-Darby canine kidney epithelial cells.
    Authors: Moyano Et al.
    Mol Biol Cell
  109. PPARdelta promotes wound healing by up-regulating TGF-beta1-dependent or -independent expression of extracellular matrix proteins.
    Authors: Ham Et al.
    J Cell Mol Med
  110. Epigenetic downregulation of human disabled homolog 2 switches TGF-beta from a tumor suppressor to a tumor promoter.
    Authors: Hannigan Et al.
    J Clin Invest
  111. Extracellular matrix-induced gene expression in human breast cancer cells.
    Authors: Garamszegi Et al.
    Mol Cancer Res
  112. Invasion of human breast cancer cells in vivo requires both paracrine and autocrine loops involving the colony-stimulating factor-1 receptor.
    Authors: Patsialou Et al.
    Cancer Res
  113. Pharmacological inhibition of transforming growth factor β signaling decreases infection and prevents heart damage in acute Chagas' disease.
    Authors: Waghabi Et al.
    Sci Rep
  114. Activin/Nodal inhibition alone accelerates highly efficient neural conversion from human embryonic stem cells and imposes a caudal positional identity.
    Authors: Patani Et al.
  115. Nodal signalling is involved in left-right asymmetry in snails.
    Authors: Grande and Patel
    J Cell Commun Signal
  116. Transcriptome profiling reveals TGF-beta signaling involvement in epileptogenesis.
    Authors: Cacheaux Et al.
    J Neurosci
  117. Transforming growth factor beta depletion is the primary determinant of Smad signaling kinetics.
    Authors: Clarke Et al.
    Mol Cell Biol
  118. Generation of human-induced pluripotent stem cells in the absence of exogenous Sox2.
    Authors: Li Et al.
    Stem Cells
  119. Highly efficient neural conversion of human ES and iPS cells by dual inhibition of SMAD signaling.
    Authors: Chambers Et al.
    J Biotechnol
  120. Localized and reversible TGFβ signalling switches breast cancer cells from cohesive to single cell motility.
    Authors: Giampieri Et al.
    J Biol Chem
  121. Down-regulation of Sprouty2 via p38 MAPK plays a key role in the induction of cellular apoptosis by tumor necrosis factor-α.
    Authors: Ding and Warburton
    Hypertens Res
  122. Rb/E2F4 and Smad2/3 link survivin to TGF-beta-induced apoptosis and tumor progression.
    Authors: Yang Et al.
  123. A distinct cohort of the TGFbeta superfamily members expressed in human endometrium regulate decidualization.
    Authors: Stoikos Et al.
    Hum Reprod
  124. Activation of TGF-beta within cultured hepatocytes and in liver injury leads to intracrine signaling with expression of connective tissue growth factor.
    Authors: Gressner Et al.
    J Cell Mol Med
  125. Short-term BMP-4 treatment initiates mesoderm induction in human embryonic stem cells.
    Authors: Zhang Et al.
  126. Combinatorial activation of FAK and AKT by transforming growth factor-beta1 confers an anoikis-resistant phenotype to myofibroblasts.
    Authors: Horowitz Et al.
    Cell Signal
  127. Signaling by ALK5 mediates TGF-β-induced ET-1 expression in endothelial cells: a role for migration and proliferation.
    Authors: Castañares Et al.
    Genes Dev
  128. PPARgamma agonists prevent TGFbeta1/Smad3-signaling in human hepatic stellate cells.
    Authors: Zhao Et al.
    Biochem Biophys Res Commun
  129. Transforming growth factor-β signaling enhances transdifferentiation of macrophages into smooth muscle-like cells.
    Authors: Ninomiya Et al.
    Mol Cell Biol
  130. Constitutive ALK5-independent c-Jun N-terminal kinase activation contributes to endothelin-1 overexpression in pulmonary fibrosis: evidence of an autocrine endothelin loop operating through the endothelin A and B receptors.
    Authors: Shi-Wen Et al.
    Exp Cell Res
  131. Identification of phosphatases for Smad in the BMP/DPP pathway.
    Authors: Chen Et al.
    Sci Rep
  132. Restoration of TGF-beta signalling reduces tumorigenicity in human lung cancer cells.
    Authors: Anumanthan Et al.
    Br J Cancer
  133. TGF-{beta}1 activates two distinct type I receptors in neurons: implications for neuronal NF-{kappa}B signaling.
    Authors: König Et al.
    J Cell Biol
  134. Matrix contraction by dermal fibroblasts requires transforming growth factor-beta/activin-linked kinase 5, heparan sulfate-containing proteoglycans, and MEK/ERK: insights into pathological scarring in chronic fibrotic disease.
    Authors: Chen Et al.
    Am J Pathol
  135. Trastuzumab-mediated antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity against esophageal squamous cell carcinoma.
    Authors: Mimura Et al.
    Clin Cancer Res
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