Catalog Number: 4423
Chemical Name: 6-[[2-[[4-(2,4-Dichlorophenyl)-5-(5-methyl-1H-imidazol-2-yl)-2-pyrimidinyl]amino]ethyl]amino]-3-pyridinecarbonitrile
Biological Activity
Potent and highly selective inhibitor of glycogen synthase kinase 3 (GSK-3) (IC50 values are 6.7 and 10 nM for GSK-3β and GSK-3α respectively). Exhibits >500-fold selectivity for GSK-3 over closely related kinases; also displays >800-fold selectivity against 45 additional enzymes and receptors. In combination with tranylcypromine (Cat. No. 3852), enables reprogramming of mouse embryonic fibroblasts, transduced by Oct4 and Klf4 only, into iPSCs. Enhances mouse and human ESC self-renewal when used in combination with PD 0325901 (Cat. No. 4192).
Technical Data
  • M.Wt:
  • Formula:
  • Solubility:
    Soluble to 20 mM in DMSO
  • Purity:
  • Storage:
    Store at -20°C
  • CAS No:
The technical data provided above is for guidance only. For batch specific data refer to the Certificate of Analysis. All Tocris products are intended for laboratory research use only.
Background References
  1. Generation of human-induced pluripotent stem cells in the absence of exogenous Sox2.
    Li et al.
    Stem Cells, 2009;27:2992
  2. AKT kinase activity is required for lithium to modulate mood-related behaviors in mice.
    Pan et al.
    Neuropsychopharmacology, 2011;36:1397
  3. Selective glycogen synthase kinase 3 inhibitors potentiate insulin activation of glucose transport and utilization in vitro and in vivo.
    Ring et al.
    Diabetes, 2003;52:588
  4. Pleiotropy of glycogen synthase kinase-3 inhibition by CHIR99021 promotes self-renewal of embyronic stem cells from refractory mouse strains.
    Ye et al.
    PLoS One, 2012;7:e35892

The citations listed below are publications that use Tocris products. Selected citations for CHIR 99021 include:

Showing Results 1 - 10 of 31

  1. Integrin signalling regulates the expansion of neuroepithelial progenitors and neurogenesis via Wnt7a and Decorin.
    Authors: Long Et al.
    Nat Biotechnol
  2. Generating trunk neural crest from human pluripotent stem cells.
    Authors: Huang Et al.
    PLoS One
  3. Generation of serotonin neurons from human pluripotent stem cells.
    Authors: Lu Et al.
    Nat Biotechnol
  4. Enhancing a Wnt-Telomere Feedback Loop Restores Intestinal Stem Cell Function in a Human Organotypic Model of Dyskeratosis Congenita
    Authors: Woo Et al.
    Cell Stem Cell
  5. Dual SMAD Signaling Inhibition Enables Long-Term Expansion of Diverse Epithelial Basal Cells
    Authors: Mou Et al.
    Cell: Stem Cell
  6. Pharmacological reprogramming of fibroblasts into neural stem cells by signaling-directed transcriptional activation.
    Authors: Zhang Et al.
    Cell Stem Cell
  7. Human Enteroids as a Model of Upper Small Intestinal Ion Transport Physiology and Pathophysiology.
    Authors: Foulke-Abel Et al.
    Nat Commun
  8. Generation of human muscle fibers and satellite-like cells from human pluripotent stem cells in vitro.
    Authors: Chal Et al.
  9. Generation�of�kidney�organoids�from�human�pluripotent stem cells.
    Authors: Takasato Et al.
    Nature Protocols
  10. Human pluripotent stem cell derived midbrain PITX3(eGFP/w) neurons: a versatile tool for pharmacological screening and neurodegenerative modeling.
    Authors: Watmuff Et al.
    Front Cell Neurosci
  11. Enolase 1 (ENO1) and protein disulfide-isomerase associated 3 (PDIA3) regulate Wnt/β-catenin-driven trans-differentiation of murine alveolar epithelial cells.
    Authors: Mutze Et al.
    Cell Rep
  12. Plasticity of Hopx(+) type I alveolar cells to regenerate type II cells in the lung.
    Authors: Jain Et al.
    Nat Commun
  13. Generation and expansion of highly pure motor neuron progenitors from human pluripotent stem cells.
    Authors: Du Et al.
  14. Inhibition of Excessive Monoamine Oxidase A/B Activity Protects Against Stress-induced Neuronal Death in Huntington Disease.
    Authors: Ooi Et al.
    Nat Chem Biol
  15. Efficient generation of NKX6-1+ pancreatic progenitors from multiple human pluripotent stem cell lines.
    Authors: Nostro Et al.
    Eur J Immunol
  16. The lymph node as a new site for kidney organogenesis.
    Authors: Francipane and Lagasse
    Stem Cells Transl Med
  17. Glycogen synthase kinase-3 controls IL-10 expression in CD4(+) effector T-cell subsets through epigenetic modification of the IL-10 promoter.
    Authors: Hill Et al.
    Mol Neurobiol
  18. Nephron organoids derived from human pluripotent stem cells model kidney development and injury.
    Authors: Morizane Et al.
    Stem Cell Reports
  19. Phosphorylation and SCF-mediated degradation regulate CREB-H transcription of metabolic targets.
    Authors: Barbosa Et al.
    Stem Cell Reports
  20. Automated Video-Based Analysis of Contractility and Calcium Flux in Human-Induced Pluripotent Stem Cell-Derived Cardiomyocytes Cultured over Different Spatial Scales.
    Authors: Huebsch Et al.
    Tissue Eng Part C Methods
  21. GSK3β-Dzip1-Rab8 cascade regulates ciliogenesis after mitosis.
    Authors: Zhang Et al.
    PLoS Biol
  22. Functional annotation of native enhancers with a Cas9-histone demethylase fusion.
    Authors: Kearns Et al.
    Nat Methods
  23. Genomic DISC1 Disruption in hiPSCs Alters Wnt Signaling and Neural Cell Fate.
    Authors: Srikanth Et al.
    Sci Rep
  24. The bimodally expressed microRNA miR-142 gates�exit from pluripotency.
    Authors: Sladitschek and Neveu
    J Biol Chem
  25. GSK-3 modulates cellular responses to a broad spectrum of kinase inhibitors.
    Authors: Thorne Et al.
    Mol Biol Cell
  26. Manganese Superoxide Dismutase Gene Expression Is Induced by Nanog and Oct4, Essential Pluripotent Stem Cells' Transcription Factors.
    Authors: Solari Et al.
    Mol Syst Biol
  27. Mouse liver repopulation with hepatocytes generated from human fibroblasts.
    Authors: Zhu Et al.
  28. Derivation and expansion of PAX7-positive muscle progenitors from human and mouse embryonic stem cells.
    Authors: Shelton Et al.
    Dis Model Mech
  29. A method to identify and isolate pluripotent human stem cells and mouse epiblast stem cells using lipid body-associated retinyl ester fluorescence.
    Authors: Muthusamy Et al.
    Stem Cell Reports
  30. A novel suppressive effect of alcohol dehydrogenase 5 in neuronal differentiation.
    Authors: Wu Et al.
    Stem Cell Res
  31. SIRPA, VCAM1 and CD34 identify discrete lineages during early human cardiovascular development.
    Authors: Skelton Et al.
    J Cachexia Sarcopenia Muscle
Expand to show all
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