CHIR 99021

  ( 49 citations ) ( 1 Review )    
Product Datasheet
Catalog Number:4423
Chemical Name:6-[[2-[[4-(2,4-Dichlorophenyl)-5-(5-methyl-1H-imidazol-2-yl)-2-pyrimidinyl]amino]ethyl]amino]-3-pyridinecarbonitrile
Product Details
Citations (49)
Reviews
Biological Activity
Potent and highly selective inhibitor of glycogen synthase kinase 3 (GSK-3) (IC50 values are 6.7 and 10 nM for GSK-3β and GSK-3α respectively). Exhibits >500-fold selectivity for GSK-3 over closely related kinases; also displays >800-fold selectivity against 45 additional enzymes and receptors. In combination with tranylcypromine (Cat. No. 3852), enables reprogramming of mouse embryonic fibroblasts, transduced by Oct4 and Klf4 only, into iPSCs. Enhances mouse and human ESC self-renewal when used in combination with PD 0325901 (Cat. No. 4192). Allows formation of extended pluripotent stem (EPS) cells in combination with (S)-(+)-Dimethindene maleate (Cat.No. 1425), minocycline hydrochloride (Cat.No. 3268) and human leukemia inhibitory factor.
Technical Data
  • M.Wt:
    465.34
  • Formula:
    C22H18Cl2N8
  • Solubility:
    Soluble to 20 mM in DMSO
  • Purity:
    >98
  • Storage:
    Store at -20°C
  • CAS No:
    252917-06-9
The technical data provided above is for guidance only. For batch specific data refer to the Certificate of Analysis. All Tocris products are intended for laboratory research use only.
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Citations:

The citations listed below are publications that use Tocris products. Selected citations for CHIR 99021 include:

49 Citations: Showing 1 - 10
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  1. CRISPR-based chromatin remodeling of the endogenous Oct4 or Sox2 locus enables reprogramming to pluripotency.
    Authors: Liu Et al.
    Cell Stem Cell.  2018;22:252
  2. Generation of functioning nephrons by implanting human pluripotent stem cell-derived kidney progenitors.
    Authors: Bantounas Et al.
    Stem Cell Reports  2018;10:766
  3. Mutual reinforcement between telomere capping and canonical Wnt signalling in the intestinalstem cell niche.
    Authors: Yang
    Nat Commun  2017;8:14766
  4. A pluripotent stem cell-based model for post-implantation human amniotic sac development.
    Authors: Shao
    Nat Commun  2017;8(1):208
  5. Core Transcription Factors, MicroRNAs, and Small Molecules Drive Transdifferentiation of Human Fibroblasts Towards The Cardiac Cell Lineage.
    Authors: Christoforou Et al.
    Sci Rep  2017;7:40285
  6. Efficient Differentiation of TBX18(+)/WT1(+) Epicardial-Like Cells from Human Pluripotent Stem Cells Using Small Molecular Compounds.
    Authors: Zhao Et al.
    Stem Cells Dev  2017;26:528
  7. Differentiation of human pluripotent stem cells into functional lung alveolar epithelial cells.
    Authors: Kotton Et al.
    Cell Stem Cell.  2017;21:472
  8. A modular platform for differentiation of human PSCs into all major ectodermal lineages.
    Authors: Tchieu Et al.
    Cell Stem Cell.  2017;21:399
  9. Live imaging reveals that the first division of differentiating human embryonic stem cells often yields asymmetric fates.
    Authors: Brown
    Cell Rep  2017;21(2):301
  10. In Vivo Human Somitogenesis Guides Somite Development from hPSCs.
    Authors: Xi
    Cell Rep.  2017;18(6):1573
  11. Derivation of pluripotent stem cells with in vivo embryonic and extraembryonic potency.
    Authors: Yang Et al.
    Cell.  2017;169:243
  12. Integrin signalling regulates the expansion of neuroepithelial progenitors and neurogenesis via Wnt7a and Decorin.
    Authors: Long Et al.
    Nat Biotechnol  2016;7:10354
  13. Generating trunk neural crest from human pluripotent stem cells.
    Authors: Huang Et al.
    PLoS One  2016;6:19727
  14. Deriving human ENS lineages for cell therapy and drug discovery in Hirschsprung disease.
    Authors: Fattahi Et al.
    Nature  2016;531:105
  15. Generation of serotonin neurons from human pluripotent stem cells.
    Authors: Lu Et al.
    Nat Biotechnol  2016;34:89
  16. Enhancing a Wnt-Telomere Feedback Loop Restores Intestinal Stem Cell Function in a Human Organotypic Model of Dyskeratosis Congenita
    Authors: Woo Et al.
    Cell Stem Cell  2016;19:397
  17. Dual SMAD Signaling Inhibition Enables Long-Term Expansion of Diverse Epithelial Basal Cells
    Authors: Mou Et al.
    Cell: Stem Cell  2016;19:217
  18. Pharmacological reprogramming of fibroblasts into neural stem cells by signaling-directed transcriptional activation.
    Authors: Zhang Et al.
    Cell Stem Cell  2016;18:653
  19. Human Enteroids as a Model of Upper Small Intestinal Ion Transport Physiology and Pathophysiology.
    Authors: Foulke-Abel Et al.
    Nat Commun  2016;150:638
  20. WNT/β-catenin signaling mediates human neural crest induction via a pre-neural border intermediate.
    Authors: Leung Et al.
    Development  2016;143:398
  21. Allelic Imbalance in Regulation of ANRIL through Chromatin Interaction at 9p21 Endometriosis Risk Locus.
    Authors: Nakaoka Et al.
    PLoS Genet  2016;12:e1005893
  22. Generation of human muscle fibers and satellite-like cells from human pluripotent stem cells in vitro.
    Authors: Chal Et al.
    Nat.Protoc.  2016;11:1833
  23. Generation of kidney organoids from human pluripotent stem cells.
    Authors: Takasato Et al.
    Nature Protocols  2016;11:1681
  24. Growth hormone is permissive for neoplastic colon growth.
    Authors: Chesnokova Et al.
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A  2016;113:E3250
  25. Human pluripotent stem cell derived midbrain PITX3(eGFP/w) neurons: a versatile tool for pharmacological screening and neurodegenerative modeling.
    Authors: Watmuff Et al.
    Front Cell Neurosci  2015;9:104
  26. Enolase 1 (ENO1) and protein disulfide-isomerase associated 3 (PDIA3) regulate Wnt/β-catenin-driven trans-differentiation of murine alveolar epithelial cells.
    Authors: Mutze Et al.
    Cell Rep  2015;8:877
  27. Plasticity of Hopx(+) type I alveolar cells to regenerate type II cells in the lung.
    Authors: Jain Et al.
    Nat Commun  2015;6:6727
  28. Generation and expansion of highly pure motor neuron progenitors from human pluripotent stem cells.
    Authors: Du Et al.
    Nat.Commun.  2015;6:6626
  29. Inhibition of Excessive Monoamine Oxidase A/B Activity Protects Against Stress-induced Neuronal Death in Huntington Disease.
    Authors: Ooi Et al.
    Nat Chem Biol  2015;52:1850
  30. Efficient generation of NKX6-1+ pancreatic progenitors from multiple human pluripotent stem cell lines.
    Authors: Nostro Et al.
    Eur J Immunol  2015;4:591
  31. The lymph node as a new site for kidney organogenesis.
    Authors: Francipane and Lagasse
    Stem Cells Transl Med  2015;4:295
  32. Glycogen synthase kinase-3 controls IL-10 expression in CD4(+) effector T-cell subsets through epigenetic modification of the IL-10 promoter.
    Authors: Hill Et al.
    Mol Neurobiol  2015;45:1103
  33. Nephron organoids derived from human pluripotent stem cells model kidney development and injury.
    Authors: Morizane Et al.
    Stem Cell Reports  2015;33:1193
  34. Phosphorylation and SCF-mediated degradation regulate CREB-H transcription of metabolic targets.
    Authors: Barbosa Et al.
    Stem Cell Reports  2015;26:2939
  35. Automated Video-Based Analysis of Contractility and Calcium Flux in Human-Induced Pluripotent Stem Cell-Derived Cardiomyocytes Cultured over Different Spatial Scales.
    Authors: Huebsch Et al.
    Tissue Eng Part C Methods  2015;21:467
  36. Small Molecules Efficiently Reprogram Human Astroglial Cells into Functional Neurons.
    Authors: Zhang Et al.
    Cell Stem Cell  2015;17:735
  37. GSK3β-Dzip1-Rab8 cascade regulates ciliogenesis after mitosis.
    Authors: Zhang Et al.
    PLoS Biol  2015;13:e1002129
  38. Functional annotation of native enhancers with a Cas9-histone demethylase fusion.
    Authors: Kearns Et al.
    Nat Methods  2015;12:401
  39. Genomic DISC1 Disruption in hiPSCs Alters Wnt Signaling and Neural Cell Fate.
    Authors: Srikanth Et al.
    Sci Rep  2015;12:1414
  40. The bimodally expressed microRNA miR-142 gates exit from pluripotency.
    Authors: Sladitschek and Neveu
    J Biol Chem  2015;11:850
  41. GSK-3 modulates cellular responses to a broad spectrum of kinase inhibitors.
    Authors: Thorne Et al.
    Mol Biol Cell  2015;11:58
  42. Manganese Superoxide Dismutase Gene Expression Is Induced by Nanog and Oct4, Essential Pluripotent Stem Cells' Transcription Factors.
    Authors: Solari Et al.
    Mol Syst Biol  2015;10:e0144336
  43. Cytotoxicity and activation of the Wnt/beta-catenin pathway in mouse embryonic stem cells treated with four GSK3 inhibitors.
    Authors: Naujok Et al.
    BMC Res Notes  2014;7:273
  44. Mouse liver repopulation with hepatocytes generated from human fibroblasts.
    Authors: Zhu Et al.
    Nature  2014;508:93
  45. Derivation and expansion of PAX7-positive muscle progenitors from human and mouse embryonic stem cells.
    Authors: Shelton Et al.
    Dis Model Mech  2014;3:516
  46. A method to identify and isolate pluripotent human stem cells and mouse epiblast stem cells using lipid body-associated retinyl ester fluorescence.
    Authors: Muthusamy Et al.
    Stem Cell Reports  2014;3:169
  47. Functionality of endothelial cells and pericytes from human pluripotent stem cells demonstrated in cultured vascular plexus and zebrafish xenografts.
    Authors: Orlova Et al.
    Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol  2014;34:177
  48. A novel suppressive effect of alcohol dehydrogenase 5 in neuronal differentiation.
    Authors: Wu Et al.
    Stem Cell Res  2014;289:20193
  49. SIRPA, VCAM1 and CD34 identify discrete lineages during early human cardiovascular development.
    Authors: Skelton Et al.
    J Cachexia Sarcopenia Muscle  2014;13:172
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Tocris Bioscience is the leading supplier of novel and exclusive tools for life science research with over 30 years' experience in the industry. Tocris is a Bio-Techne brand.

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