CHIR 99021

GMP Version Available: TB4423-GMP
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CHIR 99021 | CAS No. 252917-06-9 | GSK-3 Inhibitors
1 Image
Description: Highly selective GSK-3 inhibitor; acts as Wnt activator
Alternative Names: CHIR99021, CT99021

Chemical Name: 6-[[2-[[4-(2,4-Dichlorophenyl)-5-(5-methyl-1H-imidazol-2-yl)-2-pyrimidinyl]amino]ethyl]amino]-3-pyridinecarbonitrile

Purity: ≥98%

Product Details
Citations (113)
Supplemental Products
Reviews (2)

Biological Activity

CHIR 99021 is a potent and highly selective inhibitor of glycogen synthase kinase 3 (GSK-3) (IC50 values are 6.7 and 10 nM for GSK-3β and GSK-3α respectively). Acts as Wnt activator. Exhibits >500-fold selectivity for GSK-3 over closely related kinases; also displays >800-fold selectivity against 45 additional enzymes and receptors. In combination with the irreversible inhibitor of LSD1 (Cat. No. 3852), CHIR 99021 enables reprogramming of mouse embryonic fibroblasts, transduced by Oct4 and Klf4 only, into iPSCs. CHIR 99021 enhances mouse and human ESC self-renewal when used in combination with PD 0325901 (Cat. No. 4192). It promotes differentiation of hPSCs in cardiomyocytes. CHIR 99021 allows formation of extended pluripotent stem (EPS) cells in combination with (S)-(+)-Dimethindene maleate (Cat.No. 1425), tetracycline antibiotic (Cat.No. 3268) and human leukemia inhibitory factor.

CHIR 99021 synthesized to cGMP guidelines also available.

For more information about how CHIR 99021 may be used, see our protocols: Transdifferentiating Fibroblasts into Neurons, Culturing Transcriptomically Distinct Pluripotent mESCs, Converting Fibroblasts into Cardiomyocytes (9C Cocktail),

Application in Cardiomyocytes

Cardiomyocyte derived from human induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs) using CHIR 99021. Cells cultured in Media supplemented with Activin A (Cat. No. 338-AC, R&D Systems), N21-MAX Insulin Free (AR010, R&D Systems), BMP-4 (314-BP, R&D Systems), bFGF (233-FB, R&D Systems) and DKK-1 (5439-DK, R&D Systems). Stained for F-Actin (Phalloidin, green), Troponin T (red, Cat. No. Human Troponin T (Cardiac) Antibody, Cat. No. MAB1874, R&D Systems) and counterstained with DAPI (blue, Cat. No. 5748, Tocris).

Cardiomyocyte derived from hiPSC using CHIR99021 is a portal that offers independent guidance on the selection and/or application of small molecules for research. The use of CHIR-99021 is reviewed on the chemical probes website.

Technical Data

Soluble to 20 mM in DMSO
Store at -20°C

The technical data provided above is for guidance only. For batch specific data refer to the Certificate of Analysis.
Tocris products are intended for laboratory research use only, unless stated otherwise.

Background References

  1. The generation of kidney organoids by differentiation of human pluripotent cells to ureteric bud progenitor-like cells.
    Xia Y, Sancho-Martinez I, Nivet E et al.
    Nat Protoc.
  2. 3D mouse embryonic stem cell culture for generating inner ear organoids.
    Koehler KR, Hashino E.
    Nat Protoc
  3. Robust cardiomyocyte differentiation from human pluripotent stem cells via temporal modulation of canonical Wnt signaling.
    Lian et al.
    Proc.Natl.Acad.Sci.U S A, 2012;109:E1848
  4. AKT kinase activity is required for Li to modulate mood-related behaviors in mice.
    Pan et al.
    Neuropsychopharmacology, 2011;36:1397
  5. Pleiotropy of glycogen synthase kinase-3 inhibition by CHIR99021 promotes self-renewal of embyronic stem cells from refractory mouse strains.
    Ye et al.
    PLoS One, 2012;7:e35892
  6. Generation of human-induced pluripotent stem cells in the absence of exogenous Sox2.
    Li et al.
    Stem Cells, 2009;27:2992
  7. Derivation of pluripotent stem cells with in vivo embryonic and extraembryonic potency.
    Yang et al.
    Cell., 2017;169:243
  8. In vitro expansion of human gastric epithelial stem cells and their responses to bacterial infection.
    Bartfeld et al.
    Gastroenterology, 2015;148:126
  9. SnapShot: Growing Organoids from Stem Cells.
    Sato et al.
    Cell, 2015;161:1700
  10. Establishment of gastrointestinal epithelial organoids
    Mahe et al.
    Curr.Protoc. Mouse Biol., 2014;3:217
  11. In vitro generation of human pluripotent stem cell derived lung organoids.
    Dye et al.
    Elife, 2015;
  12. Human blood vessel organoids as a model of diabetic vasculopathy.
    Wimmer et al.
    Nature, 2019;565:505
  13. 3D Printing of Personalized Thick and Perfusable Cardiac Patches and Hearts.
    Noor et al.
    Adv.Sci.(Weinh), 2019;6:1900344
  14. Generation of spatial-patterned early-developing cardiac organoids using human pluripotent stem cells.
    Hoang et al.
    Nat.Protoc., 2018;13:723

Product Datasheets

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Citations for CHIR 99021

The citations listed below are publications that use Tocris products. Selected citations for CHIR 99021 include:

113 Citations: Showing 1 - 10

  1. Biphasic activation of WNT signaling facilitates the derivation of midbrain dopamine neurons from hESCs for translational use.
    Authors: Kim Et al.
    Cell Stem Cell  2021;28:343
  2. Human Stem Cell-Derived Neurons Repair Circuits and Restore Neural Function
    Authors: Xiong Et al.
    cell stem Cell  2021;28:112
  3. Efficient Generation of Trunk Neural Crest and Sympathetic Neurons from Human Pluripotent Stem Cells Via a Neuromesodermal Axial Progenitor Intermediate.
    Authors: Frith and Tsakiridis
    Curr Protoc Stem Cell Biol  2019;:e81
  4. User-defined morphogen patterning for directing human cell fate stratification.
    Authors: Regier Et al.
    Sci Rep  2019;9:6433
  5. Quantification of human neuromuscular function through optogenetics.
    Authors: Vila Et al.
    Theranostics  2019;9:1232
  6. Automation of human pluripotent stem cell differentiation toward retinal pigment epithelial cells for large-scale productions.
    Authors: Regent Et al.
    Sci Rep  2019;9:10646
  7. Directed differentiation of human induced pluripotent stem cells into mature stratified bladder urothelium.
    Authors: Suzuki Et al.
    Sci Rep  2019;9:10506
  8. Evaluating Shigella flexneri Pathogenesis in the Human Enteroid Model.
    Authors: Ranganathan Et al.
    Infect Immun  2019;87
  9. Human blood vessel organoids as a model of diabetic vasculopathy.
    Authors: Wimmer Et al.
    Nature  2019;565:505
  10. A C/EBPα-Wnt connection in gut homeostasis and carcinogenesis.
    Authors: Heuberger Et al.
    Life Sci Alliance  2019;2:e201800173
  11. NMDAR-Activated PP1 Dephosphorylates GluN2B to Modulate NMDAR Synaptic Content.
    Authors: Chiu Et al.
    Cell Rep  2019;28:332
  12. Single-Cell RNA-Sequencing-Based CRISPRi Screening Resolves Molecular Drivers of Early Human Endoderm Development.
    Authors: Genga Et al.
    Cell Rep  2019;27:708
  13. In Vivo Generation of Post-infarct Human Cardiac Muscle by Laminin-Promoted Cardiovascular Progenitors.
    Authors: Yap Et al.
    Cell Rep  2019;26:3231
  14. User-Friendly and Parallelized Generation of Human Induced Pluripotent Stem Cell-Derived Microtissues in a Centrifugal Heart-on-a-Chip.
    Authors: Schneider Et al.
    Tissue Eng Part A  2019;25:786
  15. Single-Cell Sequencing of iPSC-DA Neurons Reconstructs Disease Progression and Identifies HDAC4 as a Regulator of Parkinson Cell Phenotypes.
    Authors: Lang Et al.
    Cell Stem Cell  2019;24:93
  16. Establishment of porcine and human expanded potential stem cells.
    Authors: Gao Et al.
    Nat Cell Biol  2019;21:687
  17. Fine Tuning of Hepatocyte Differentiation from Human Embryonic Stem Cells: Growth Factor vs. Small Molecule-Based Approaches.
    Authors: Varghese Et al.
    Stem Cells Int  2019;2019:5968236
  18. A dose-dependent response to MEK inhibition determines hypoblast fate in bovine embryos.
    Authors: Canizo Et al.
    BMC Dev Biol  2019;19:13
  19. An isogenic neurovascular unit model comprised of human induced pluripotent stem cell-derived brain microvascular endothelial cells, pericytes, astrocytes, and neurons.
    Authors: Canfield Et al.
    Fluids Barriers CNS  2019;16:25
  20. Neuropathy-causing mutations in HSPB1 impair autophagy by disturbing the formation of SQSTM1/p62 bodies.
    Authors: Haidar Et al.
    Autophagy  2019;15:1051
  21. Huntington's Disease Patient-Derived Astrocytes Display Electrophysiological Impairments and Reduced Neuronal Support.
    Authors: Garcia Et al.
    Front Neurosci  2019;13:669
  22. FGF Modulates the Axial Identity of Trunk hPSC-Derived Neural Crest but Not the Cranial-Trunk Decision.
    Authors: Hackland Et al.
    Stem Cell Reports  2019;12:920
  23. Chemical conversion of human fetal astrocytes into neurons through modulation of multiple signaling pathways.
    Authors: Yin Et al.
    Stem Cell Reports  2019;12:488
  24. Implantation initiation of self-assembled embryo-like structures generated using three types of mouse blastocyst-derived stem cells.
    Authors: Zhang Et al.
    Nat Commun  2019;10:496
  25. Maternal pluripotency factors initiate extensive chromatin remodelling to predefine first response to inductive signals.
    Authors: Gentsch Et al.
    Nat Commun  2019;10:4269
  26. Dual stem cell therapy synergistically improves cardiac function and vascular regeneration following myocardial infarction.
    Authors: Park Et al.
    Nat Commun  2019;10:3123
  27. Efficient derivation of extended pluripotent stem cells from NOD-scid Il2rg-/- mice.
    Authors: Du Et al.
    Protein Cell  2019;10:31
  28. Generation of pig induced pluripotent stem cells using an extended pluripotent stem cell culture system.
    Authors: Xu Et al.
    Stem Cell Res Ther  2019;10:193
  29. ETV1 activates a rapid conduction transcriptional program in rodent and human cardiomyocytes.
    Authors: Shekhar Et al.
    Sci Rep  2018;8:9944
  30. Shared effects of DISC1 disruption and elevated WNT signaling in human cerebral organoids.
    Authors: Srikanth Et al.
    Transl Psychiatry  2018;8:77
  31. Stage-specific Effects of Bioactive Lipids on Human iPSC Cardiac Differentiation and Cardiomyocyte Proliferation.
    Authors: Sharma Et al.
    Sci Rep  2018;8:6618
  32. Expansion of Airway Basal Cells and Generation of Polarized Epithelium.
    Authors: Levardon Et al.
    Bio Protoc  2018;8
  33. Functional comparison of distinct Brachyury+ states in a renal differentiation assay.
    Authors: Zhou Et al.
    Biol Open  2018;7
  34. Human-Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells Manufactured Using a Current Good Manufacturing Practice-Compliant Process Differentiate Into Clinically Relevant Cells From Three Germ Layers.
    Authors: Shafa Et al.
    Front Med (Lausanne)  2018;5:69
  35. Derivation of Epithelial-Only Airway Organoids from Human Pluripotent Stem Cells.
    Authors: McCauley Et al.
    Curr Protoc Stem Cell Biol  2018;45:e51
  36. Generation of human vascularized brain organoids.
    Authors: Pham Et al.
    Neuroreport  2018;29:588
  37. Identification of direct negative cross-talk between the SLIT2 and bone morphogenetic protein-Gremlin signaling pathways.
    Authors: Tumelty Et al.
    J Biol Chem  2018;293:3039
  38. Paneth Cells Respond to Inflammation and Contribute to Tissue Regeneration by Acquiring Stem-like Features through SCF/c-Kit Signaling.
    Authors: Schmitt Et al.
    Cell Rep  2018;24:2312
  39. Th17 lymphocytes induce neuronal cell death in a human iPSC-based model of Parkinson's disease.
    Authors: Sommer Et al.
    Cell Stem Cell  2018;23:123
  40. Super-Obese Patient-Derived iPSC Hypothalamic Neurons Exhibit Obesogenic Signatures and Hormone Responses.
    Authors: Rajamani Et al.
    Cell Stem Cell  2018;22:698
  41. Myoepithelial Cells of Submucosal Glands Can Function as Reserve Stem Cells to Regenerate Airways after Injury.
    Authors: Tata Et al.
    Cell Stem Cell  2018;22:668
  42. Submucosal Gland Myoepithelial Cells Are Reserve Stem Cells That Can Regenerate Mouse Tracheal Epithelium.
    Authors: Lynch Et al.
    Cell Stem Cell  2018;22:653
  43. CRISPR-based chromatin remodeling of the endogenous Oct4 or Sox2 locus enables reprogramming to pluripotency.
    Authors: Liu Et al.
    Cell Stem Cell.  2018;22:252
  44. Highly efficient transfection of human induced pluripotent stem cells using magnetic nanoparticles.
    Authors: Yamoah Et al.
    Int J Nanomedicine  2018;13:6073
  45. The COPII cargo adapter SEC24C is essential for neuronal homeostasis.
    Authors: Wang Et al.
    J Clin Invest  2018;128:3319
  46. Generation of functioning nephrons by implanting human pluripotent stem cell-derived kidney progenitors.
    Authors: Bantounas Et al.
    Stem Cell Reports  2018;10:766
  47. Direct reprogramming of mouse fibroblasts into functional skeletal muscle progenitors.
    Authors: Bar-Nur Et al.
    Stem Cell Reports  2018;10:1505
  48. Notch and Aryl Hydrocarbon Receptor Signaling Impact Definitive Hematopoiesis from Human Pluripotent Stem Cells.
    Authors: Leung Et al.
    Stem Cells  2018;
  49. Rapid generation of gene-targeted EPS-derived mouse models through tetraploid complementation.
    Authors: Li Et al.
    Protein Cell  2018;
  50. Cocktail of chemical compounds robustly promoting cell reprogramming protects liver against acute injury.
    Authors: Tang and Cheng
    Protein Cell  2017;8:273
  51. Culture in Glucose-Depleted Medium Supplemented with Fatty Acid and 3,3',5-Triiodo-l-Thyronine Facilitates Purification and Maturation of Human Pluripotent Stem Cell-Derived Cardiomyocytes.
    Authors: Lin Et al.
    Front Endocrinol (Lausanne)  2017;8:253
  52. Mutual reinforcement between telomere capping and canonical Wnt signalling in the intestinalstem cell niche.
    Authors: Yang
    Nat Commun  2017;8:14766
  53. A pluripotent stem cell-based model for post-implantation human amniotic sac development.
    Authors: Shao
    Nat Commun  2017;8(1):208
  54. Biomaterial-Free Three-Dimensional Bioprinting of Cardiac Tissue using Human Induced Pluripotent Stem Cell Derived Cardiomyocytes.
    Authors: Ong Et al.
    Sci Rep  2017;7:4566
  55. Core Transcription Factors, MicroRNAs, and Small Molecules Drive Transdifferentiation of Human Fibroblasts Towards The Cardiac Cell Lineage.
    Authors: Christoforou Et al.
    Sci Rep  2017;7:40285
  56. Establishment of mouse expanded potential stem cells.
    Authors: Yang Et al.
    Nature  2017;550:393
  57. Guided self-organization and cortical plate formation in human brain organoids.
    Authors: Lancaster Et al.
    Nat Biotechnol  2017;35:659
  58. Efficient differentiation of TBX18(+)/WT1(+) epicardial-like cells from human pluripotent stem cells using small molecular compounds.
    Authors: Zhao Et al.
    Stem Cells Dev  2017;26:528
  59. Defined Culture Conditions Accelerate Small-molecule-assisted Neural Induction for the Production of Neural Progenitors from Human-induced Pluripotent Stem Cells.
    Authors: Walsh Et al.
    Cell Transplant  2017;26:1890
  60. Induced Pluripotent Stem Cell-Derived Dopaminergic Neurons from Adult Common Marmoset Fibroblasts.
    Authors: Vermilyea Et al.
    Stem Cells Dev  2017;26:1225
  61. Differentiation of human pluripotent stem cells into functional lung alveolar epithelial cells.
    Authors: Kotton Et al.
    Cell Stem Cell.  2017;21:472
  62. A modular platform for differentiation of human PSCs into all major ectodermal lineages.
    Authors: Tchieu Et al.
    Cell Stem Cell.  2017;21:399
  63. Live imaging reveals that the first division of differentiating human embryonic stem cells often yields asymmetric fates.
    Authors: Brown
    Cell Rep  2017;21(2):301
  64. Efficient Derivation of Functional Human Airway Epithelium from Pluripotent Stem Cells via Temporal Regulation of Wnt Signaling.
    Authors: McCauley Et al.
    Cell Stem Cell  2017;20:844
  65. In Vivo Human Somitogenesis Guides Somite Development from hPSCs.
    Authors: Xi
    Cell Rep.  2017;18(6):1573
  66. Anatomically and Functionally Distinct Lung Mesenchymal Populations Marked by Lgr5 and Lgr6.
    Authors: Lee Et al.
    Cell  2017;170:1149
  67. Derivation of pluripotent stem cells with in vivo embryonic and extraembryonic potency.
    Authors: Yang Et al.
    Cell.  2017;169:243
  68. Correction of Hirschsprung-Associated Mutations in Human Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells Via Clustered Regularly Interspaced Short Palindromic Repeats/Cas9, Restores Neural Crest Cell Function.
    Authors: Lai Et al.
    Gastroenterology  2017;153:139
  69. Directed differentiation of human induced pluripotent stem cells into functional cholangiocyte-like cells.
    Authors: Sampaziotis Et al.
    Nat Protoc  2017;12:814
  70. Generation of nephron progenitor cells and kidney organoids from human pluripotent stem cells.
    Authors: Morizane and Bonventre
    Nat Protoc  2017;12:195
  71. Dynamic regulation of Nanog and stem cell-signaling pathways by Hoxa1 during early neuro-ectodermal differentiation of ES cells.
    Authors: Kumar Et al.
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A  2017;114:5838
  72. Integrin signalling regulates the expansion of neuroepithelial progenitors and neurogenesis via Wnt7a and Decorin.
    Authors: Long Et al.
    Nat Biotechnol  2016;7:10354
  73. Generating trunk neural crest from human pluripotent stem cells.
    Authors: Huang Et al.
    PLoS One  2016;6:19727
  74. Deriving human ENS lineages for cell therapy and drug discovery in Hirschsprung disease.
    Authors: Fattahi Et al.
    Nature  2016;531:105
  75. Generation of serotonin neurons from human pluripotent stem cells.
    Authors: Lu Et al.
    Nat Biotechnol  2016;34:89
  76. Regulation of WNT Signaling by VSX2 During Optic Vesicle Patterning in Human Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells.
    Authors: Capowski Et al.
    Stem Cells  2016;34:2625
  77. Enhancing a Wnt-Telomere Feedback Loop Restores Intestinal Stem Cell Function in a Human Organotypic Model of Dyskeratosis Congenita
    Authors: Woo Et al.
    Cell Stem Cell  2016;19:397
  78. Dual SMAD Signaling Inhibition Enables Long-Term Expansion of Diverse Epithelial Basal Cells
    Authors: Mou Et al.
    Cell: Stem Cell  2016;19:217
  79. Pharmacological reprogramming of fibroblasts into neural stem cells by signaling-directed transcriptional activation.
    Authors: Zhang Et al.
    Cell Stem Cell  2016;18:653
  80. Human Enteroids as a Model of Upper Small Intestinal Ion Transport Physiology and Pathophysiology.
    Authors: Foulke-Abel Et al.
    Nat Commun  2016;150:638
  81. Tankyrase inhibition promotes a stable human na�ve pluripotent state with improved functionality.
    Authors: Zimmerlin Et al.
    Development  2016;143:4368
  82. WNT/β-catenin signaling mediates human neural crest induction via a pre-neural border intermediate.
    Authors: Leung Et al.
    Development  2016;143:398
  83. Allelic Imbalance in Regulation of ANRIL through Chromatin Interaction at 9p21 Endometriosis Risk Locus.
    Authors: Nakaoka Et al.
    PLoS Genet  2016;12:e1005893
  84. Generation of human muscle fibers and satellite-like cells from human pluripotent stem cells in vitro.
    Authors: Chal Et al.
    Nat.Protoc.  2016;11:1833
  85. Generation of kidney organoids from human pluripotent stem cells.
    Authors: Takasato Et al.
    Nature Protocols  2016;11:1681
  86. GH is permissive for neoplastic colon growth.
    Authors: Chesnokova Et al.
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A  2016;113:E3250
  87. HP Promotes Cardiac Differentiation of Human Pluripotent Stem Cells in Chemically Defined Albumin-Free Medium, Enabling Consistent Manufacture of Cardiomyocytes.
    Authors: Lin Et al.
    Stem Cells Transl Med  2016;
  88. Human pluripotent stem cell derived midbrain PITX3(eGFP/w) neurons: a versatile tool for pharmacological screening and neurodegenerative modeling.
    Authors: Watmuff Et al.
    Front Cell Neurosci  2015;9:104
  89. Enolase 1 (ENO1) and protein disulfide-isomerase associated 3 (PDIA3) regulate Wnt/β-catenin-driven trans-differentiation of murine alveolar epithelial cells.
    Authors: Mutze Et al.
    Cell Rep  2015;8:877
  90. Plasticity of Hopx(+) type I alveolar cells to regenerate type II cells in the lung.
    Authors: Jain Et al.
    Nat Commun  2015;6:6727
  91. Generation and expansion of highly pure motor neuron progenitors from human pluripotent stem cells.
    Authors: Du Et al.
    Nat.Commun.  2015;6:6626
  92. Inhibition of Excessive Monoamine Oxidase A/B Activity Protects Against Stress-induced Neuronal Death in Huntington Disease.
    Authors: Ooi Et al.
    Nat Chem Biol  2015;52:1850
  93. Efficient generation of NKX6-1+ pancreatic progenitors from multiple human pluripotent stem cell lines.
    Authors: Nostro Et al.
    Eur J Immunol  2015;4:591
  94. The lymph node as a new site for kidney organogenesis.
    Authors: Francipane and Lagasse
    Stem Cells Transl Med  2015;4:295
  95. Glycogen synthase kinase-3 controls IL-10 expression in CD4(+) effector T-cell subsets through epigenetic modification of the IL-10 promoter.
    Authors: Hill Et al.
    Mol Neurobiol  2015;45:1103
  96. Nephron organoids derived from human pluripotent stem cells model kidney development and injury.
    Authors: Morizane Et al.
    Stem Cell Reports  2015;33:1193
  97. Phosphorylation and SCF-mediated degradation regulate CREB-H transcription of metabolic targets.
    Authors: Barbosa Et al.
    Stem Cell Reports  2015;26:2939
  98. Automated Video-Based Analysis of Contractility and Calcium Flux in Human-Induced Pluripotent Stem Cell-Derived Cardiomyocytes Cultured over Different Spatial Scales.
    Authors: Huebsch Et al.
    Tissue Eng Part C Methods  2015;21:467
  99. Small Molecules Efficiently Reprogram Human Astroglial Cells into Functional Neurons.
    Authors: Zhang Et al.
    Cell Stem Cell  2015;17:735
  100. Non-genomic and Immune Evolution of Melanoma Acquiring MAPKi Resistance.
    Authors: Hugo Et al.
    Cell  2015;162:1271
  101. GSK3β-Dzip1-Rab8 cascade regulates ciliogenesis after mitosis.
    Authors: Zhang Et al.
    PLoS Biol  2015;13:e1002129
  102. Functional annotation of native enhancers with a Cas9-histone demethylase fusion.
    Authors: Kearns Et al.
    Nat Methods  2015;12:401
  103. Genomic DISC1 Disruption in hiPSCs Alters Wnt Signaling and Neural Cell Fate.
    Authors: Srikanth Et al.
    Sci Rep  2015;12:1414
  104. The bimodally expressed microRNA miR-142 gates exit from pluripotency.
    Authors: Sladitschek and Neveu
    J Biol Chem  2015;11:850
  105. GSK-3 modulates cellular responses to a broad spectrum of kinase inhibitors.
    Authors: Thorne Et al.
    Mol Biol Cell  2015;11:58
  106. Manganese Superoxide Dismutase Gene Expression Is Induced by Nanog and Oct4, Essential Pluripotent Stem Cells' Transcription Factors.
    Authors: Solari Et al.
    Mol Syst Biol  2015;10:e0144336
  107. Cytotoxicity and activation of the Wnt/beta-catenin pathway in mouse embryonic stem cells treated with four GSK3 inhibitors.
    Authors: Naujok Et al.
    BMC Res Notes  2014;7:273
  108. Mouse liver repopulation with hepatocytes generated from human fibroblasts.
    Authors: Zhu Et al.
    Nature  2014;508:93
  109. Derivation and expansion of PAX7-positive muscle progenitors from human and mouse embryonic stem cells.
    Authors: Shelton Et al.
    Dis Model Mech  2014;3:516
  110. A method to identify and isolate pluripotent human stem cells and mouse epiblast stem cells using lipid body-associated retinyl ester fluorescence.
    Authors: Muthusamy Et al.
    Stem Cell Reports  2014;3:169
  111. Functionality of endothelial cells and pericytes from human pluripotent stem cells demonstrated in cultured vascular plexus and zebrafish xenografts.
    Authors: Orlova Et al.
    Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol  2014;34:177
  112. A novel suppressive effect of alcohol dehydrogenase 5 in neuronal differentiation.
    Authors: Wu Et al.
    Stem Cell Res  2014;289:20193
  113. SIRPA, VCAM1 and CD34 identify discrete lineages during early human cardiovascular development.
    Authors: Skelton Et al.
    J Cachexia Sarcopenia Muscle  2014;13:172


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