CHIR 99021

GMP Version Available: TB4423-GMP
Catalog # Availability Size / Price Qty
CHIR 99021 | CAS No. 252917-06-9 | GSK-3 Inhibitors
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Description: Highly selective GSK-3 inhibitor; acts as Wnt activator
Alternative Names: CHIR99021, CT99021

Chemical Name: 6-[[2-[[4-(2,4-Dichlorophenyl)-5-(5-methyl-1H-imidazol-2-yl)-2-pyrimidinyl]amino]ethyl]amino]-3-pyridinecarbonitrile

Purity: ≥98%

Product Details
Citations (409)
Supplemental Products
Reviews (2)

Biological Activity

CHIR 99021 is a potent and highly selective inhibitor of glycogen synthase kinase 3 (GSK-3) (IC50 values are 6.7 and 10 nM for GSK-3β and GSK-3α respectively). Acts as Wnt activator. Exhibits >500-fold selectivity for GSK-3 over closely related kinases; also displays >800-fold selectivity against 45 additional enzymes and receptors. In combination with the irreversible inhibitor of LSD1 (Cat. No. 3852), CHIR 99021 enables reprogramming of mouse embryonic fibroblasts, transduced by Oct4 and Klf4 only, into iPSCs. Enhances mouse and human ESC self-renewal when used in combination with PD 0325901 (Cat. No. 4192). It promotes differentiation of hPSCs in cardiomyocytes and allows formation of extended pluripotent stem (EPS) cells in combination with (S)-(+)-Dimethindene maleate (Cat. No. 1425), tetracycline antibiotic (Cat. No. 3268) and human leukemia inhibitory factor. Also used in a protocol to generate brain organoids from human iPSCs.

CHIR 99021 synthesized to cGMP guidelines also available.

For more information on how to use CHIR 99021, see our protocols: Transdifferentiating Fibroblasts into Neurons, Culturing Transcriptomically Distinct Pluripotent mESCs, Converting Fibroblasts into Cardiomyocytes (9C Cocktail), Human iPSC-derived Myoblasts.

Scientific Data

Cardiomyocyte derived from human induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs) using CHIR 99021. Cells cultured in Media supplemented with Activin A (Catalog # 338-AC, R&D Systems), N21-MAX Insulin Free (Catalog # AR010, R&D Systems), BMP-4 (Catalog # 314-BP, R&D Systems), bFGF (Catalog # 233-FB, R&D Systems) and DKK-1 (Catalog # 5439-DK, R&D Systems). Stained for F-Actin (Phalloidin, green), Troponin T (red, Human Troponin T (Cardiac) Antibody, Catalog # MAB1874, R&D Systems) and counterstained with DAPI (blue, Catalog # 5748, Tocris).

External Portal Information is a portal that offers independent guidance on the selection and/or application of small molecules for research. The use of CHIR-99021 is reviewed on the chemical probes website.

Technical Data

Soluble to 20 mM in DMSO
Store at -20°C

The technical data provided above is for guidance only. For batch specific data refer to the Certificate of Analysis.
Tocris products are intended for laboratory research use only, unless stated otherwise.

Background References

  1. The generation of kidney organoids by differentiation of human pluripotent cells to ureteric bud progenitor-like cells.
    Xia Y, Sancho-Martinez I, Nivet E et al.
    Nat Protoc.
  2. 3D mouse embryonic stem cell culture for generating inner ear organoids.
    Koehler KR, Hashino E.
    Nat Protoc
  3. AKT kinase activity is required for Li to modulate mood-related behaviors in mice.
    Pan et al.
    Neuropsychopharmacology, 2011;36:1397
  4. Pleiotropy of glycogen synthase kinase-3 inhibition by CHIR99021 promotes self-renewal of embyronic stem cells from refractory mouse strains.
    Ye et al.
    PLoS One, 2012;7:e35892
  5. Generation of human-induced pluripotent stem cells in the absence of exogenous Sox2.
    Li et al.
    Stem Cells, 2009;27:2992
  6. Derivation of pluripotent stem cells with in vivo embryonic and extraembryonic potency.
    Yang et al.
    Cell., 2017;169:243
  7. In vitro expansion of human gastric epithelial stem cells and their responses to bacterial infection.
    Bartfeld et al.
    Gastroenterology, 2015;148:126
  8. SnapShot: Growing Organoids from Stem Cells.
    Sato et al.
    Cell, 2015;161:1700
  9. Establishment of gastrointestinal epithelial organoids
    Mahe et al.
    Curr.Protoc. Mouse Biol., 2014;3:217
  10. In vitro generation of human pluripotent stem cell derived lung organoids.
    Dye et al.
    Elife, 2015;
  11. Human blood vessel organoids as a model of diabetic vasculopathy.
    Wimmer et al.
    Nature, 2019;565:505
  12. 3D Printing of Personalized Thick and Perfusable Cardiac Patches and Hearts.
    Noor et al.
    Adv.Sci.(Weinh), 2019;6:1900344
  13. Generation of spatial-patterned early-developing cardiac organoids using human pluripotent stem cells.
    Hoang et al.
    Nat.Protoc., 2018;13:723

Product Datasheets

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Citations for CHIR 99021

The citations listed below are publications that use Tocris products. Selected citations for CHIR 99021 include:

409 Citations: Showing 1 - 10

  1. Pluripotent stem cell-derived committed cardiac progenitors remuscularize damaged ischemic hearts and improve their function in pigs.
    Authors: Jing Et al.
    NPJ Regen Med  2023;8:26
  2. Systematic discovery of transcription factors that improve hPSC-derived cardiomyocyte maturation via temporal analysis of bioengineered cardiac tissues.
    Authors: Aditya Et al.
    APL Bioeng  2023;7:026109
  3. Spatial multiomics map of trophoblast development in early pregnancy.
    Authors: Qian Et al.
    Nature  2023;616:143-151
  4. Engineered cardiac tissue model of restrictive cardiomyopathy for drug discovery.
    Authors: Yulia V Et al.
    Cell Rep Med  2023;4:100976
  5. A Robust Pipeline for the Multi-Stage Accelerated Differentiation of Functional 3D Cortical Organoids from Human Pluripotent Stem Cells.
    Authors: Mustafa Et al.
    Curr Protoc  2023;3:e641
  6. Quantitative chemometric phenotyping of three-dimensional liver organoids by Raman spectral imaging.
    Authors: Stefan Et al.
    Cell Rep Methods  2023;3:100440
  7. Genetic dissection of the pluripotent proteome through multi-omics data integration.
    Authors: Steven P Et al.
    Cell Genom  2023;3:100283
  8. Automated high-content imaging in iPSC-derived neuronal progenitors.
    Authors: Serena Et al.
    SLAS Discov  2023;28:42-51
  9. Generation of dorsoventral human spinal cord organoids via functionalizing composite scaffold for drug testing.
    Authors: Bo Et al.
    iScience  2023;26:105898
  10. Expansion of ventral foregut is linked to changes in the enhancer landscape for organ-specific differentiation.
    Authors: Sara Et al.
    Nat Cell Biol  2023;25:481-492
  11. Long-Term SMN- and Ncald-ASO Combinatorial Therapy in SMA Mice and NCALD-ASO Treatment in hiPSC-Derived Motor Neurons Show Protective Effects.
    Authors: C Frank Et al.
    Int J Mol Sci  2023;24
  12. Airway and Lung Organoids from Human-Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells Can Be Used to Assess CFTR Conductance.
    Authors: Dmitry Et al.
    Int J Mol Sci  2023;24
  13. Pump-less, recirculating organ-on-a-chip (rOoC) platform.
    Authors: Stefan Et al.
    Lab Chip  2023;23:591-608
  14. FUS-ALS hiPSC-derived astrocytes impair human motor units through both gain-of-toxicity and loss-of-support mechanisms.
    Authors: Ludo Et al.
    Mol Neurodegener  2023;18:5
  15. Bioengineering human intestinal mucosal grafts using patient-derived organoids, fibroblasts and scaffolds.
    Authors: Laween Et al.
    Nat Protoc  2023;18:108-135
  16. An in vivo neuroimmune organoid model to study human microglia phenotypes.
    Authors: Schafer Et al.
    Cell  2023;186:2111
  17. A pesticide and iPSC dopaminergic neuron screen identifies and classifies Parkinson-relevant pesticides.
    Authors: Tim Et al.
    Nat Commun  2023;14:2803
  18. Establishing Bipotential Human Lung Organoid Culture System and Differentiation to Generate Mature Alveolar and Airway Organoids.
    Authors: Jie Et al.
    Bio Protoc  2023;13:e4657
  19. Axon guidance genes modulate neurotoxicity of ALS-associated UBQLN2.
    Authors: Mark Et al.
    Elife  2023;12
  20. Establishment of Skeletal Myogenic Progenitors from Non-Human Primate Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells.
    Authors: Alessandro Et al.
    Cells  2023;12
  21. Recapitulating porcine cardiac development in vitro: from expanded potential stem cell to embryo culture models.
    Authors: Alessandra Et al.
    Front Cell Dev Biol  2023;11:1111684
  22. A distal lung organoid model to study interstitial lung disease, viral infection and human lung development.
    Authors: Nadine Et al.
    Nat Protoc  2023;
  23. In vivo development of immune tissue in human intestinal organoids transplanted into humanized mice
    Authors: Bouffi Et al.
    Nat.Biotechnol.  2023;
  24. Ti3 C2 Tx MXene Composite 3D Hydrogel Potentiates mTOR Signaling to Promote the Generation of Functional Hair Cells in Cochlea Organoids.
    Authors: Chen Et al.
    Adv Sci (Weinh)  2022;9:e2203557
  25. Transcription Factor Hb9 Is Expressed in Glial Cell Lineages in the Developing Mouse Spinal Cord.
    Authors: Diego Et al.
    Eneuro  2022;9
  26. Engineering a living cardiac pump on a chip using high-precision fabrication.
    Authors: Kamil Et al.
    Sci Adv  2022;8:eabm3791
  27. Transplanted organoids empower human preclinical assessment of drug candidate for the clinic.
    Authors: Michael Et al.
    Sci Adv  2022;8:eabj5633
  28. Reengineering Ponatinib to Minimize Cardiovascular Toxicity.
    Authors: Wenqi Et al.
    Cancer Res  2022;82:2777-2791
  29. JAK inhibitor blocks COVID-19 cytokine-induced JAK/STAT/APOL1 signaling in glomerular cells and podocytopathy in human kidney organoids.
    Authors: Guojie Et al.
    JCI Insight  2022;7
  30. The antimicrobial peptide S100A8/A9 produced by airway epithelium functions as a potent and direct regulator of macrophage phenotype and function.
    Authors: Stefan Et al.
    Eur Respir J  2022;59
  31. Pancreas agenesis mutations disrupt a lead enhancer controlling a developmental enhancer cluster.
    Authors: Jorge Et al.
    Dev Cell  2022;57:1922-1936.e9
  32. IL-17RA-signaling in Lgr5+ intestinal stem cells induces expression of transcription factor ATOH1 to promote secretory cell lineage commitment.
    Authors: Jay K Et al.
    Immunity  2022;55:237-253.e8
  33. Mitochondrial dysfunction by TFAM depletion disrupts self-renewal and lineage differentiation of human PSCs by affecting cell proliferation and YAP response.
    Authors: Yue Et al.
    Redox Biol  2022;50:102248
  34. Organoids capture tissue-specific innate lymphoid cell development in mice and humans.
    Authors: Ludovic Et al.
    Cell Rep  2022;40:111281
  35. STK25 inhibits PKA signaling by phosphorylating PRKAR1A.
    Authors: Gordana Et al.
    Cell Rep  2022;40:111203
  36. In vitro atlas of dorsal spinal interneurons reveals Wnt signaling as a critical regulator of progenitor expansion.
    Authors: Sandeep Et al.
    Cell Rep  2022;40:111119
  37. An optimized chromatin immunoprecipitation protocol using Staph-seq for analyzing genome-wide protein-DNA interactions.
    Authors: Xi Et al.
    STAR Protoc  2022;3:101918
  38. Generation of human elongating multi-lineage organized cardiac gastruloids.
    Authors: Janet L Et al.
    STAR Protoc  2022;3:101898
  39. Protocols to culture and harvest hepatic tumor organoids for metabolic assays.
    Authors: Stephanie Et al.
    STAR Protoc  2022;3:101597
  40. Defined conditions for long-term expansion of murine and human alveolar epithelial stem cells in three-dimensional cultures.
    Authors: Aleksandra Et al.
    STAR Protoc  2022;3:101447
  41. Primary culture of tracheal aspirate-derived human airway basal stem cells.
    Authors: Xingbin Et al.
    STAR Protoc  2022;3:101390
  42. Dynamic 3D Combinatorial Generation of hPSC-Derived Neuromesodermal Organoids With Diverse Regional and Cellular Identities.
    Authors: Mustafa Et al.
    Curr Protoc  2022;2:e568
  43. Three-Dimensional Vessels-on-a-Chip Based on hiPSC-derived Vascular Endothelial and Smooth Muscle Cells.
    Authors: Marc Et al.
    Curr Protoc  2022;2:e564
  44. Derivation of nociceptive sensory neurons from hiPSCs with early patterning and temporally controlled NEUROG2 overexpression.
    Authors: Emmanouil Et al.
    Cell Rep Methods  2022;2:100341
  45. Development of high-affinity nanobodies specific for NaV1.4 and NaV1.5 voltage-gated sodium channel isoforms.
    Authors: Gordon F Et al.
    J Biol Chem  2022;298:101763
  46. Human induced pluripotent stem cells integrate, create synapses and extend long axons after spinal cord injury.
    Authors: James R Et al.
    J Cell Mol Med  2022;26:1932-1942
  47. Human fetal membrane-mesenchymal stromal cells generate functional spinal motor neurons in vitro.
    Authors: Simone Et al.
    iScience  2022;25:105197
  48. Wnt-activating human skin organoid model of atopic dermatitis induced by Staphylococcus aureus and its protective effects by Cutibacterium acnes.
    Authors: Kyung-Sun Et al.
    iScience  2022;25:105150
  49. A combined human gastruloid model of cardiogenesis and neurogenesis.
    Authors: Janet L Et al.
    iScience  2022;25:104486
  50. Identification of metabolic pathways underlying FGF1 and CHIR99021-mediated cardioprotection.
    Authors: Fan Et al.
    iScience  2022;25:104447
  51. CDX2-induced intestinal metaplasia in human gastric organoids derived from induced pluripotent stem cells.
    Authors: Yoshihiro Et al.
    iScience  2022;25:104314
  52. Single-cell atlas of the aging mouse colon.
    Authors: Jing Et al.
    iScience  2022;25:104202
  53. Metabolomic profiling of human pluripotent stem cell differentiation into lung progenitors.
    Authors: Martin Et al.
    iScience  2022;25:103797
  54. The HASTER lncRNA promoter is a cis-acting transcriptional stabilizer of HNF1A.
    Authors: Sagrario Et al.
    Nat Cell Biol  2022;24:1528-1540
  55. Human alveolar type 2 epithelium transdifferentiates into metaplastic KRT5+ basal cells.
    Authors: Bruce Et al.
    Nat Cell Biol  2022;24:10-23
  56. In Vitro Generation of Heart Field Specific Cardiomyocytes.
    Authors: Reza Et al.
    Methods Mol Biol  2022;2429:257-267
  57. Differentiation of iPS-Cells into Peripheral Sensory Neurons.
    Authors: Angelika Et al.
    Methods Mol Biol  2022;2429:175-188
  58. Human Pluripotent Stem Cell-Derived Alveolar Organoid with Macrophages.
    Authors: Young-Woock Et al.
    Int J Mol Sci  2022;23
  59. Engineering neurovascular organoids with 3D printed microfluidic chips.
    Authors: Catherine Et al.
    Lab Chip  2022;22:1615-1629
  60. LRRK2 is required for CD38-mediated NAADP-Ca2+ signaling and the downstream activation of TFEB (transcription factor EB) in immune cells.
    Authors: Chong-Shan Et al.
    Autophagy  2022;18:204-222
  61. Autophagy modulates cell fate decisions during lineage commitment.
    Authors: Elisabeth Et al.
    Autophagy  2022;18:1915-1931
  62. A multi-axis robot-based bioprinting system supporting natural cell function preservation and cardiac tissue fabrication.
    Authors: Chengkai Et al.
    Bioact Mater  2022;18:138-150
  63. Transcription factor protein interactomes reveal genetic determinants in heart disease.
    Authors: Christine E Et al.
    Cell  2022;185:794-814.e30
  64. Epithelial-derived factors induce muscularis mucosa of human induced pluripotent stem cell-derived gastric organoids.
    Authors: Takashi Et al.
    Stem Cell Reports  2022;17:820-834
  65. Directed differentiation of human pluripotent stem cells into diverse organ-specific mesenchyme of the digestive and respiratory systems.
    Authors: Lu Et al.
    Nat Protoc  2022;17:2699-2719
  66. Spinal dI4 Interneuron Differentiation From Human Pluripotent Stem Cells.
    Authors: Hong Et al.
    Front Mol Neurosci  2022;15:845875
  67. Susceptibilities of CNS Cells towards Rabies Virus Infection Is Linked to Cellular Innate Immune Responses.
    Authors: Florent Et al.
    Viruses  2022;15
  68. The GSK-3 Inhibitor CT99021 Enhances the Acquisition of Spatial Learning and the Accuracy of Spatial Memory.
    Authors: Bong-Kiun Et al.
    Front Mol Neurosci  2022;14:804130
  69. DJ-1 is an essential downstream mediator in PINK1/parkin-dependent mitophagy.
    Authors: Catherine Et al.
    Brain  2022;145:4368-4384
  70. Retrotransposon instability dominates the acquired mutation landscape of mouse induced pluripotent stem cells.
    Authors: Francisco J Et al.
    Nat Commun  2022;13:7470
  71. Developmental modeling of hepatogenesis using obese iPSCs-hepatocyte differentiation uncovers pathological features.
    Authors: Muhammad Abid Et al.
    Cell Death Dis  2022;13:670
  72. A stem cell roadmap of ribosome heterogeneity reveals a function for RPL10A in mesoderm production.
    Authors: Zhen Et al.
    Nat Commun  2022;13:5491
  73. Primary cilia and SHH signaling impairments in human and mouse models of Parkinson's disease.
    Authors: Beate Et al.
    Nat Commun  2022;13:4819
  74. A multimodal iPSC platform for cystic fibrosis drug testing.
    Authors: Mary Lou Et al.
    Nat Commun  2022;13:4270
  75. Dynamic enlargement and mobilization of lipid droplets in pluripotent cells coordinate morphogenesis during mouse peri-implantation development.
    Authors: Vincent Et al.
    Nat Commun  2022;13:3861
  76. A non-dividing cell population with high pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase activity regulates metabolic heterogeneity and tumorigenesis in the intestine.
    Authors: Miguel N Et al.
    Nat Commun  2022;13:1503
  77. Re-Expression of ERα and AR in Receptor Negative Endocrine Cancers via GSK3 Inhibition.
    Authors: Monica M Et al.
    Front Oncol  2022;12:824594
  78. Renalase and its receptor, PMCA4b, are expressed in the placenta throughout the human gestation.
    Authors: Christine Et al.
    Sci Rep  2022;12:4953
  79. Tumor endothelial marker 1 is upregulated in heart after cardiac injury and participates in cardiac remodeling.
    Authors: Yen-Wen Et al.
    Sci Rep  2022;12:10532
  80. Streamlined and quantitative detection of chimerism using digital PCR.
    Authors: Hiromitsu Et al.
    Sci Rep  2022;12:10223
  81. Isolation and characterization of human embryonic stem cell-derived heart field-specific cardiomyocytes unravels new insights into their transcriptional and electrophysiological profiles.
    Authors: Peng Et al.
    Cardiovasc Res  2022;118:828-843
  82. Genome-wide identification of the genetic basis of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.
    Authors: Cheng Et al.
    Neuron  2022;110:992-1008.e11
  83. The human amniotic epithelium confers a bias to differentiate toward the neuroectoderm lineage in human embryonic stem cells.
    Authors: Wendy Et al.
    Elife  2022;11
  84. EHMT2 methyltransferase governs cell identity in the lung and is required for KRAS G12D tumor development and propagation.
    Authors: Xi Et al.
    Elife  2022;11
  85. Innate immune signaling in trophoblast and decidua organoids defines differential antiviral defenses at the maternal-fetal interface.
    Authors: Sallie Et al.
    Elife  2022;11
  86. An epithelial signalling centre in sharks supports homology of tooth morphogenesis in vertebrates.
    Authors: Alexandre P Et al.
    Elife  2022;11
  87. A Novel Bioreactor for Reconstitution of the Epithelium and Submucosal Glands in Decellularized Ferret Tracheas.
    Authors: Kalpaj R Et al.
    Cells  2022;11
  88. Canonical Wnt signaling and the regulation of divergent mesenchymal Fgf8 expression in axolotl limb development and regeneration.
    Authors: Elly Et al.
    Elife  2022;11
  89. Contribution of Trp63CreERT2-labeled cells to alveolar regeneration is independent of tuft cells.
    Authors: Timothy C Et al.
    Elife  2022;11
  90. Tension-driven multi-scale self-organisation in human iPSC-derived muscle fibers.
    Authors: Erica Et al.
    Elife  2022;11
  91. Efficient differentiation of human primordial germ cells through geometric control reveals a key role for Nodal signaling.
    Authors: Ran Et al.
    Elife  2022;11
  92. Kidney organoids recapitulate human basement membrane assembly in health and disease.
    Authors: Roy Et al.
    Elife  2022;11
  93. An In Vitro Microfluidic Alveolus Model to Study Lung Biomechanics.
    Authors: Shyni Et al.
    Front Bioeng Biotechnol  2022;10:848699
  94. Novel GSK-3 kinase inhibitor Pym-5 induces GSK-3β rather than GSK-3α-dependent melanogenesis in murine melanoma cells.
    Authors: Yin Et al.
    J Dermatol Sci  2022;106:170-180
  95. High-Yield Human Induced Pluripotent Stem Cell-Derived Monocytes and Macrophages Are Functionally Comparable With Primary Cells.
    Authors: Di Et al.
    Front Cell Dev Biol  2021;9:656867
  96. SARS-CoV-2 Disrupts Proximal Elements in the JAK-STAT Pathway.
    Authors: Andrew Et al.
    J Virol  2021;95:e0086221
  97. Expression of HIV-1 Intron-Containing RNA in Microglia Induces Inflammatory Responses.
    Authors: Gustavo Et al.
    J Virol  2021;95
  98. CHAF1A Blocks Neuronal Differentiation and Promotes Neuroblastoma Oncogenesis via Metabolic Reprogramming.
    Authors: Giovanni Et al.
    Adv Sci (Weinh)  2021;8:e2005047
  99. Elevated Extracellular cGMP Produced after Exposure to Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli Heat-Stable Toxin Induces Epithelial IL-33 Release and Alters Intestinal Immunity.
    Authors: John D Et al.
    Infect Immun  2021;89
  100. NRF1 association with AUTS2-Polycomb mediates specific gene activation in the brain.
    Authors: Danny Et al.
    Mol Cell  2021;81:4663-4676.e8
  101. Evolutionary epigenomic analyses in mammalian early embryos reveal species-specific innovations and conserved principles of imprinting.
    Authors: Ling Et al.
    Sci Adv  2021;7:eabi6178
  102. Generation of human blastocyst-like structures from pluripotent stem cells.
    Authors: Wei Et al.
    Cell Discov  2021;7:81
  103. A diamidobenzimidazole STING agonist protects against SARS-CoV-2 infection.
    Authors: Fiachra H. Et al.
    Sci Immunol  2021;6
  104. NOTUM from Apc-mutant cells biases clonal competition to initiate cancer.
    Authors: Ari Et al.
    Nature  2021;594:430-435
  105. Neuronal enhancers are hotspots for DNA single-strand break repair.
    Authors: Rafael Et al.
    Nature  2021;593:440-444
  106. The connectome of neural crest enhancers reveals regulatory features of signaling systems.
    Authors: Marcos Et al.
    Dev Cell  2021;56:1268-1282.e6
  107. Myogenin suppresses apoptosis induced by angiotensin II in human induced pluripotent stem cell-derived cardiomyocytes.
    Authors: Bin Et al.
    Biochem Biophys Res Commun  2021;552:84-90
  108. Resolving cell state in iPSC-derived human neural samples with multiplexed fluorescence imaging.
    Authors: Beth A Et al.
    Commun Biol  2021;4:786
  109. TENET: gene network reconstruction using transfer entropy reveals key regulatory factors from single cell transcriptomic data.
    Authors: Kyoung-Jae Et al.
    Nucleic Acids Res  2021;49:e1
  110. A weakened interface in the P182L variant of HSP27 associated with severe Charcot-Marie-Tooth neuropathy causes aberrant binding to interacting proteins.
    Authors: John M Et al.
    EMBO J  2021;40:e103811
  111. GATA transcription factors, SOX17 and TFAP2C, drive the human germ-cell specification program.
    Authors: Takuya Et al.
    Life Sci Alliance  2021;4
  112. Paediatric gastric organoids as a tool for disease modelling and clinical translation.
    Authors: Paolo Et al.
    Pediatr Surg Int  2021;37:317-324
  113. Human iPSC-derived fallopian tube organoids with BRCA1 mutation recapitulate early-stage carcinogenesis.
    Authors: Beth Y Et al.
    Cell Rep  2021;37:110146
  114. Local non-pituitary growth hormone is induced with aging and facilitates epithelial damage.
    Authors: Kolja Et al.
    Cell Rep  2021;37:110068
  115. HSP70 chaperones RNA-free TDP-43 into anisotropic intranuclear liquid spherical shells.
    Authors: Digvijay Et al.
    Science  2021;371
  116. Patient-specific iPSCs carrying an SFTPC mutation reveal the intrinsic alveolar epithelial dysfunction at the inception of interstitial lung disease.
    Authors: Andrew Et al.
    Cell Rep  2021;36:109636
  117. Actinin BioID reveals sarcomere crosstalk with oxidative metabolism through interactions with IGF2BP2.
    Authors: J Travis Et al.
    Cell Rep  2021;36:109512
  118. A universal gene correction approach for FKRP-associated dystroglycanopathies to enable autologous cell therapy.
    Authors: Anne G Et al.
    Cell Rep  2021;36:109360
  119. Active elimination of intestinal cells drives oncogenic growth in organoids.
    Authors: Jacco Et al.
    Cell Rep  2021;36:109307
  120. Sarcomere function activates a p53-dependent DNA damage response that promotes polyploidization and limits in vivo cell engraftment.
    Authors: Paul Et al.
    Cell Rep  2021;35:109088
  121. 5-hydroxymethylcytosine is dynamically regulated during forebrain organoid development and aberrantly altered in Alzheimer's disease.
    Authors: Li Et al.
    Cell Rep  2021;35:109042
  122. Airway basal stem cells generate distinct subpopulations of PNECs.
    Authors: Ying Et al.
    Cell Rep  2021;35:109011
  123. Generation of mixed murine organoids to model cellular interactions.
    Authors: Jacco Et al.
    STAR Protoc  2021;2:100997
  124. Differentiation of human pluripotent stem cells into functional airway basal stem cells.
    Authors: Shingo Et al.
    STAR Protoc  2021;2:100683
  125. High-throughput generation of midbrain dopaminergic neuron organoids from reporter human pluripotent stem cells.
    Authors: Tim Et al.
    STAR Protoc  2021;2:100463
  126. Derivation of Airway Basal Stem Cells from Human Pluripotent Stem Cells.
    Authors: Andras Et al.
    Cell Stem Cell  2021;28:79-95.e8
  127. Biphasic activation of WNT signaling facilitates the derivation of midbrain dopamine neurons from hESCs for translational use.
    Authors: Kim Et al.
    Cell Stem Cell  2021;28:343
  128. Cell Surface Mechanics Gate Embryonic Stem Cell Differentiation.
    Authors: Jamie A Et al.
    Cell Stem Cell  2021;28:209-216.e4
  129. Generation of Functional Organs Using a Cell-Competitive Niche in Intra- and Inter-species Rodent Chimeras.
    Authors: Hiromitsu Et al.
    Cell Stem Cell  2021;28:141-149.e3
  130. Human Stem Cell-Derived Neurons Repair Circuits and Restore Neural Function
    Authors: Xiong Et al.
    cell stem Cell  2021;28:112
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    Stem Cell Reports  2015;26:2939
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iPSC differentiation
By Ricardo Malvicini on 09/26/2021
Species: Human

Used for the differentiation of Human IPSc to cardiomyocites (concentrarion of 5uM)

cells treatment
By Anonymous on 12/04/2017

Treating cells

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