TGF-beta 2 Biotinylated Antibody
TGF-beta 2 Biotinylated Antibody Summary
Human TGF-beta 2 Sandwich Immunoassay
Please Note: Optimal dilutions should be determined by each laboratory for each application. General Protocols are available in the Technical Information section on our website.
Preparation and Storage
- 12 months from date of receipt, -20 to -70 °C as supplied.
- 1 month, 2 to 8 °C under sterile conditions after reconstitution.
- 6 months, -20 to -70 °C under sterile conditions after reconstitution.
Background: TGF-beta 2
TGF-beta 2 (transforming growth factor beta 2) is one of three closely related mammalian members of the large TGF-beta superfamily that share a characteristic cysteine knot structure (1 - 7). TGF-beta 1, -2 and -3 are highly pleiotropic cytokines proposed to act as cellular switches that regulate processes such as immune function, proliferation and epithelial-mesenchymal transition (1 - 4). Each TGF-beta isoform has some non-redundant functions; for TGF-beta 2, mice with targeted deletion show defects in development of cardiac, lung, craniofacial, limb, eye, ear and urogenital systems (2). Human TGF-beta 2 cDNA encodes a 414 amino acid (aa) precursor that contains a 19 aa signal peptide and a 395 aa proprotein (8). A furin-like convertase processes the proprotein to generate an N-terminal 232 aa latency-associated peptide (LAP) and a C-terminal 112 aa mature TGF- beta 2 (8, 9). Disulfide-linked homodimers of LAP and TGF-beta 2 remain non-covalently associated after secretion, forming the small latent TGF-beta 1 complex (8 - 10). Covalent linkage of LAP to one of three latent TGF-beta binding proteins (LTBPs) creates a large latent complex that may interact with the extracellular matrix (9, 10). TGF-beta is activated from latency by pathways that include actions of the protease plasmin, matrix metalloproteases, thrombospondin 1 and a subset of integrins (10). Mature human TGF-beta 2 shows 100% aa identity with porcine, canine, equine and bovine TGF-beta 2, and 97% aa identity with mouse and rat TGF-beta 2. It demonstrates cross-species activity (1). TGF-beta 2 signaling begins with binding to a complex of the accessory receptor betaglycan (also known as TGF-beta RIII) and a type II ser/thr kinase receptor termed TGF-beta RII. This receptor then phosphorylates and activates another ser/thr kinase receptor, TGF-beta RI (also called activin receptor-like kinase (ALK) -5), or alternatively, ALK-1. The whole complex phosphorylates and activates Smad proteins that regulate transcription (3, 11, 12). Use of other signaling pathways that are Smad-independent allows for disparate actions observed in response to TGF-beta in different contexts (11).
- Sporn, M.B. (2006) Cytokine Growth Factor Rev. 17:3.
- Dunker, N. and K. Krieglstein, 2000, Eur. J. Biochem. 267:6982.
- Wahl, S.M. (2006) Immunol. Rev. 213:213.
- Chang, H. et al. (2002) Endocr. Rev. 23:787.
- Lin, J.S. et al. (2006) Reproduction 132:179.
- Hinck, A.P. et al. (1996) Biochemistry 35:8517.
- Mittl, P.R.E. et al. (1996) Protein Sci. 5:1261.
- deMartin, R. et al. (1987) EMBO J. 6:3673.
- Miyazono, K. et al. (1988) J. Biol. Chem. 263:6407.
- Oklu, R. and R. Hesketh (2000) Biochem. J. 352:601.
- de Caestecker, M. et al. (2004) Cytokine Growth Factor Rev. 15:1.
- Zuniga, J.E. et al. (2005) J. Mol. Biol. 354:1052.
Citations for TGF-beta 2 Biotinylated Antibody
R&D Systems personnel manually curate a database that contains references using R&D Systems products. The data collected includes not only links to publications in PubMed, but also provides information about sample types, species, and experimental conditions.
Citations: Showing 1 - 2
Filter your results:
Interferon-gamma inhibits transforming growth factor-beta production in human airway epithelial cells by targeting Smads.
Authors: Wen FQ, Liu X, Kobayashi T, Abe S, Fang Q, Kohyama T, Ertl R, Terasaki Y, Manouilova L, Rennard SI
Am. J. Respir. Cell Mol. Biol., 2004;30(6):816-22.
Sample Types: Cell Culture Supernates
Applications: ELISA Development
Th2 cytokine regulation of type I collagen gel contraction mediated by human lung mesenchymal cells.
Authors: Liu X, Kohyama T, Wang H, Zhu YK, Wen FQ, Kim HJ, Romberger DJ, Rennard SI
Am. J. Physiol. Lung Cell Mol. Physiol., 2002;282(5):L1049-56.
Sample Types: Cell Culture Supernates
No product specific FAQs exist for this product, however you mayView all Antibody FAQs
Supplemental Cell Selection Products
Supplemental ELISA Products
Reviews for TGF-beta 2 Biotinylated Antibody
Average Rating: 5 (Based on 1 Review)
Have you used TGF-beta 2 Biotinylated Antibody?
Submit a review and receive an Amazon gift card.
$25/€18/£15/$25CAN/¥75 Yuan/¥1250 Yen for a review with an image
$10/€7/£6/$10 CAD/¥70 Yuan/¥1110 Yen for a review without an image