Human Dkk-3 Antibody
Human Dkk-3 Antibody Summary
Accession # Q9UBP4.1
Please Note: Optimal dilutions should be determined by each laboratory for each application. General Protocols are available in the Technical Information section on our website.
Preparation and Storage
- 12 months from date of receipt, -20 to -70 °C as supplied.
- 1 month, 2 to 8 °C under sterile conditions after reconstitution.
- 6 months, -20 to -70 °C under sterile conditions after reconstitution.
Dkk-3, also known as REIC (Reduced Expansion in Immortalized Cells), is one of four numbered members of the Dickkopf family of Wnt antagonists (1). Dkk-3 is a secreted monomer expressed in many normal human tissues, most strongly in heart, brain and spinal cord (1, 2), and during early embryonic development in the mouse (3). N-glycosylation at up to four sites preceding or between two conserved cysteine-rich motifs results in expression of a 45-65 kDa glycoprotein (1, 4). The cysteine-rich motifs contain 10 cysteines each, with prokineticin and colipase families containing sequences similar to those of the second motif (1, 5). Human Dkk-3 shows 82%, 88%, 85%, and 53% amino acid (aa) identity with mouse, bovine, canine, and chick Dkk-3, respectively, and 37-45% aa identity with other human Dkk family members. Several lines of evidence implicate Dkk-3 as a negative growth regulator. Dkk-3 is downregulated in many tumors as compared to normal cells, sometimes by loss of heterozygosity (4, 6). Downregulation by CpG hypermethylation in acute lymphoblastic leukemia is correlated with faster progression and shorter survival (7). Release of cultured cells from serum starvation results in downregulation of Dkk-3 in late G1 phase of the cell cycle (6). Over-expression of Dkk‑3 results in tumor cell-line-specific growth inhibition, induction of apoptosis, and decreased tumorigenicity in nude mice (2, 4, 6). The prototype Dickkopf member, Dkk-1, antagonizes Wnt family signaling by binding to Wnt receptors LRP5 and LRP6 (low-density lipoprotein receptor-related proteins) and promoting their internalization (1, 9, 10). Results are less straightforward for Dkk-3, where some studies show binding to LRP5/6 while others do not. These effects appear to be dependent on the cells and conditions used (1, 6-10).
- Krupnik, V.E. et al. (1999) Gene 238:301.
- Tsuji, T. et al. (2000) Biochem. Biophys. Res. Comm. 268:20.
- Kemp, C. et al. (2005) Dev. Dyn. 233:1064.
- Hsieh, S.-Y. et al. (2004) Oncogene 23:9183.
- Bullock, C.M. et al. (2004) Mol. Pharmacol. 65:582.
- Tsuji, T. et al. (2001) Biochem. Biophys. Res. Comm. 289:257.
- Roman-Gomez, J. et al. (2004) Br. J. Cancer 91:707.
- Hoang, B.H. et al. (2004) Cancer Res. 64:2734.
- Caricasole, A. et al. (2003) J. Biol. Chem. 278:37024.
- Mao, B. et al. (2001) Nature 411:321.
Citation for Human Dkk-3 Antibody
R&D Systems personnel manually curate a database that contains references using R&D Systems products. The data collected includes not only links to publications in PubMed, but also provides information about sample types, species, and experimental conditions.
1 Citation: Showing 1 - 1
The Dickkopf-homolog 3 is expressed in tumor endothelial cells and supports capillary formation.
Authors: Untergasser G, Steurer M, Zimmermann M, Hermann M, Kern J, Amberger A, Gastl G, Gunsilius E
Int. J. Cancer, 2008;122(7):1539-47.
Sample Types: Cell Lysates
Applications: Western Blot
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