|Cell Proliferation Induced by G-CSF and Neutralization by Human G-CSF Antibody. Recombinant Human G-CSF (Catalog # 214-CS) stimulates proliferation in the NFS-60 mouse myeloid cell line in a dose-dependent manner (orange line), as measured by Resazurin (Catalog # AR002). Proliferation elicited by Recombinant Human G-CSF (0.125 ng/mL) is neutralized (green line) by increasing concentrations of Recombinant Human G-CSF Monoclonal Antibody (Catalog # MAB214R). The ND50 is typically 0.01-0.03 μg/mL.|
G-CSF is a pleiotropic cytokine best known for its specific effects on the proliferation, differentiation, and activation of hematopoietic cells of the neutrophilic granulocyte lineage. It is produced mainly by monocytes and macrophages upon activation by endotoxin, TNF-alpha and IFN-gamma. Other cell types including fibroblasts, endothelial cells, astrocytes and bone marrow stromal cells can also secrete G-CSF after LPS, IL-1, or TNF-alpha activation. In addition, various carcinoma cell lines and myeloblastic leukemia cells can express G-CSF constitutively.
In humans, two distinct cDNA clones for G-CSF, encoding 207 and 204 amino acid precursor proteins, have been isolated. Both proteins have a 30 amino acid signal peptide and have identical amino acid sequences except for a three amino acid insertion (deletion) at the 35th amino acid residue from the N-terminus of the mature protein. Human G-CSF is 73% identical at the amino acid level to murine G-CSF and the two proteins show species cross-reactivity.
In vitro, G-CSF stimulates growth, differentiation and functions of cells from the neutrophil lineage. It also has blast cell growth factor activity and can synergize with IL-3 to shorten the Go period of early hematopoietic progenitors. Consistent with its in vitro functions, G-CSF has been found to play important roles in defense against infection, in inflammation and repair, and in the maintenance of steady state hematopoiesis.