|PRAS40 in Human Breast. PRAS40 was detected in immersion fixed paraffin-embedded sections of human breast using Sheep Anti-Human PRAS40 Antigen Affinity-purified Polyclonal Antibody (Catalog # AF6408) at 3 µg/mL overnight at 4 °C. Before incubation with the primary antibody, tissue was subjected to heat-induced epitope retrieval using Antigen Retrieval Reagent-Basic (Catalog # CTS013). Tissue was stained using the Anti-Sheep HRP-DAB Cell & Tissue Staining Kit (brown; Catalog # CTS019) and counterstained with hematoxylin (blue). Specific staining was localized to epithelial cells. View our protocol for Chromogenic IHC Staining of Paraffin-embedded Tissue Sections.|
PRAS40 (Proline-rich AKT1 substrate 1; also Akt1S1 and p39) is a 40-42 kDa cytoplasmic phosphoprotein that lacks generally recognized structural motifs. It is widely expressed, and is considered to be key regulator of mTORC1 (mTOR plus raptor and G beta L), a complex through which Akt signals into the cell. Through phosphorylation, mTORC1 activity is upregulated by PRAS40. In particular, nonphosphorylated PRAS40 binds to and serves as a negative regulator of mTORC1 activity. Upon Insulin signaling, PRAS40 is phosphorylated on Thr246, Ser221 and Ser183. This causes it to bind 14-3-3 and results in its dissociation from mTORC1, freeing up mTOR to regulate (positively or negatively) protein synthesis. Human PRAS40 is 256 amino acids (aa) in length. It contains one extended Pro-rich region (aa 35-96) plus at least nine utilized Ser/Thr phosphorylation sites. There is one alternative start site at Met131. Over aa 119-256, human PRAS40 shares 93% aa identity with mouse PRAS40.
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