IL‑2 in Human PBMCs. IL‑2 was detected in immersion fixed human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) stimulated with PMA and ionomycin using 15 µg/mL Goat Anti-Human/Primate IL‑2 Biotinylated Antigen Affinity-purified Polyclonal Antibody (Catalog # BAF202) for 3 hours at room temperature. Cells were stained (red) and counterstained (green). View our protocol for Fluorescent ICC Staining of Non-adherent Cells.
IL‑2 in Human PBMCs. IL‑2 was detected in immersion fixed PMA-, ionomycin-, and monensin-stimulated human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) using 10 µg/mL Goat Anti-Human/Primate IL‑2 Biotinylated Antigen Affinity-purified Polyclonal Antibody (Catalog # BAF202) for 3 hours at room temperature. Cells were stained with the NorthernLights™ 557-conjugated Streptavidin (red; Catalog # NL999) and counterstained with DAPI (blue). View our protocol for Fluorescent ICC Staining of Non-adherent Cells.
Preparation and Storage
Reconstitute at 0.2 mg/mL in sterile PBS.
The product is shipped at ambient temperature. Upon receipt, store it immediately at the temperature recommended below.
Stability & Storage
Use a manual defrost freezer and avoid repeated freeze-thaw cycles.
12 months from date of receipt, -20 to -70 °C as supplied.
1 month, 2 to 8 °C under sterile conditions after reconstitution.
6 months, -20 to -70 °C under sterile conditions after reconstitution.
Interleukin-2 (IL-2) is a O-glycosylated, four alpha -helix bundle cytokine that has potent stimulatory activity for antigen-activated T cells. It is expressed by CD4+ and CD8+ T cells, gamma δ T cells, B cells, dendritic cells, and eosinophils (1 - 3). Mature human IL-2 shares 56% and 66% aa sequence identity with mouse and rat IL-2, respectively. Human and mouse IL-2 exhibit cross-species activity (4). The receptor for IL-2 consists of three subunits that are present on the cell surface in varying preformed complexes (5 - 7). The 55 kDa IL-2 R alpha is specific for IL-2 and binds with low affinity. The 75 kDa IL-2 R beta, which is also a component of the IL-15 receptor, binds IL-2 with intermediate affinity. The 64 kDa common gamma chain gamma c/IL-2 R gamma, which is shared with the receptors for IL-4, -7, -9, -15, and -21, does not independently interact with IL-2. Upon ligand binding, signal transduction is performed by both IL-2 R beta and gamma c. IL-2 is best known for its autocrine and paracrine activity on T cells. It drives resting T cells to proliferate and induces IL-2 and IL-2 R alpha synthesis (1, 2). It contributes to T cell homeostasis by promoting the Fas-induced death of naïve CD4+ T cells but not activated CD4+ memory lymphocytes (8). IL-2 plays a central role in the expansion and maintenance of regulatory T cells, although it inhibits the development of Th17 polarized cells (9 - 11). Thus, IL-2 may be a key cytokine in the natural suppression of autoimmunity (12, 13).
Ma, A. et al. (2006) Annu. Rev. Immunol. 24:657.
Gaffen, S.L. and K.D. Liu (2004) Cytokine 28:109.
Taniguchi, T. et al. (1983) Nature 302:305.
Mosmann, T.R. et al. (1987) J. Immunol. 138:1813.
Liparoto, S.F. et al. (2002) Biochemistry 41:2543.
Wang, X. et al. (2005) Science 310:1159.
Bodnar, A. et al. (2008) Immunol. Lett. 116:117.
Jaleco, S. et al. (2003) J. Immunol. 171:61.
Malek, T.R. (2003) J. Leukoc. Biol. 74:961.
Laurence, A. et al. (2007) Immunity 26:371.
Kryczek, I. et al. (2007) J. Immunol. 178:6730.
Afzali, B. et al. (2007) Clin. Exp. Immunol. 148:32.
Fehervari, Z. et al. (2006) Trends Immunol. 27:109.
R&D Systems personnel manually curate a database that contains references using R&D Systems products.
The data collected includes not only links to publications in PubMed,
but also provides information about sample types, species, and experimental conditions.
Th2 cytokine response in Major Depressive Disorder patients before treatment. Authors: Pavon L, Kiryushko D, Novitskaya V, Sandoval-Lopez G, Eugenia Hernandez M, Soroka V, Klingelhofer J, Loria F, Estrada I, Lukanidin E, Berezin V, Perez M, Moreno J, Bock E, Avila U, Leff P, Anton B, Heinze G J. Neuroimmunol., 2006;172(1):156-65. Species: Human Sample Type: Serum Application: ELISA Development
Have you used Human/Primate IL-2 Biotinylated Antibody?
Submit a review and receive a $25US/€18/£15/$25CAN amazon gift card if you include an image - $10US/€7/£6/$10CAN Amazon card for reviews without an image. Limited to verified customers in USA, Canada and Europe.