Measured by its ability to neutralize VEGF‑D-induced proliferation in HMVEC human microvascular endothelial cells [Achen, M. et al. (1998) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 95:548]. The Neutralization Dose (ND50) is typically 3‑10 µg/mL in the presence of 1 µg/mL Recombinant Human VEGF‑D.
Please Note: Optimal dilutions should be determined by each laboratory for each application. General Protocols are available in the Technical Information section on our website.
Cell Proliferation Induced by VEGF‑D and Neutralization by Human VEGF‑D Antibody. Recombinant Human VEGF‑D (Catalog # 622-VD) stimulates proliferation in HMVEC human microvascular endothelial cells in a dose-dependent manner (orange line). Proliferation elicited by Recombinant Human VEGF‑D (1 µg/mL) is neutralized (green line) by increasing concentrations of Goat Anti-Human VEGF-D Antigen Affinity-purified Polyclonal Antibody (Catalog # AF286). The ND50 is typically 3-10 µg/mL.
VEGF‑D in Human Prostate. VEGF‑D was detected in immersion fixed frozen sections of human prostate (cross-section through a blood vessel) using 15 µg/mL Goat Anti-Human VEGF‑D Antigen Affinity-purified Polyclonal Antibody (Catalog # AF286) overnight at 4 °C. Tissue was stained with the Anti-Goat HRP-DAB Cell & Tissue Staining Kit (brown; Catalog # CTS008) and counterstained with hematoxylin (blue). View our protocol for Chromogenic IHC Staining of Frozen Tissue Sections.
Preparation and Storage
Reconstitute at 0.2 mg/mL in sterile PBS.
The product is shipped at ambient temperature. Upon receipt, store it immediately at the temperature recommended below. *Small pack size (SP) is shipped with polar packs. Upon receipt, store it immediately at -20 to -70 °C
Stability & Storage
Use a manual defrost freezer and avoid repeated freeze-thaw cycles.
12 months from date of receipt, -20 to -70 °C as supplied.
1 month, 2 to 8 °C under sterile conditions after reconstitution.
6 months, -20 to -70 °C under sterile conditions after reconstitution.
Vascular endothelial growth factor D (VEGF-D), also known as c-fos-induced growth factor (FIGF), is a secreted glycoprotein of the VEGF/PDGF family. VEGFs regulate angiogenesis and lymphangiogenesis during development and tumor growth, and are characterized by eight conserved cysteine residues that form a cystine knot structure (1-3). VEGF-C and VEGF-D, which share 23% amino acid (aa) sequence identity, are uniquely expressed as preproproteins that contain long N- and C‑terminal propeptide extensions around the VEGF homology domain (VHD) (1, 2). Proteolytic processing of the 354 aa VEGF-D preproprotein creates a secreted proprotein. Further processing by extracellular serine proteases, such as plasmin or furin-like proprotein convertases, forms mature VEGF-D consisting of non-covalently linked 42 kDa homodimers of the 117 aa VHD (4-6). Mature human VEGF-D shares 94%, 95%, 99%, 97%, and 93% aa identity with mouse, rat, equine, canine and bovine VEGF-D, respectively (4, 5). It is expressed in adult lung, heart, muscle, and small intestine, and is most abundantly expressed in fetal lungs and skin (1-4). Mouse and human VEGF-D are ligands for VEGF Receptor 3 (VEGF R3; also called Flt-4) that are active across species and show enhanced affinity when processed (7). Processed human VEGF-D is also a ligand for VEGF R2, also called Flk-1 or KDR (7). VEGF R3 is strongly expressed in lymphatic endothelial cells and is essential for regulation of the growth and differentiation of lymphatic endothelium (1, 2). While VEGF-C is the critical ligand for VEGF R3 during embryonic lymphatic development, VEGF-D is most active in neonatal lymphatic maturation and bone growth (8-10). Both promote tumor lymphangiogenesis (11). Consonant with their activity on VEGF receptors, binding of VEGF-C and VEGF-D to neuropilins contributes to VEGF R3 signaling in lymphangiogenesis, while binding to integrin alpha 9 beta 1 mediates endothelial cell adhesion and migration (12, 13).
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R&D Systems personnel manually curate a database that contains references using R&D Systems products.
The data collected includes not only links to publications in PubMed,
but also provides information about sample types, species, and experimental conditions.
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