Human VEGF-D Antibody

(8 citations)   
  • Species Reactivity
    Human
  • Specificity
    Detects human VEGF-D in direct ELISAs and Western blots. In direct ELISAs, 100% cross-reactivity with mVEGF-D and less than 1% cross-reactivity with recombinant human (rh) VEGF‑C is observed.
  • Source
    Polyclonal Goat IgG
  • Purification
    Antigen Affinity-purified
  • Immunogen
    Mouse myeloma cell line NS0-derived recombinant human VEGF-D
    Phe93-Ser201
    Accession # O43915
  • Formulation
    Lyophilized from a 0.2 μm filtered solution in PBS with Trehalose. *Small pack size (SP) is supplied as a 0.2 µm filtered solution in PBS.
  • Endotoxin Level
    <0.10 EU per 1 μg of the antibody by the LAL method.
  • Label
    Unconjugated
Applications
  •  
    Recommended
    Concentration
    Sample
  • Western Blot
    0.1 µg/mL
    Recombinant Human VEGF-D (Catalog # 622-VD)
  • Immunohistochemistry
    5-15 µg/mL
    See below
  • Neutralization
    Measured by its ability to neutralize VEGF‑D-induced proliferation in HMVEC human microvascular endothelial cells [Achen, M. et al. (1998) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 95:548]. The Neutralization Dose (ND50) is typically 3‑10 µg/mL in the presence of 1 µg/mL Recombinant Human VEGF‑D.
Please Note: Optimal dilutions should be determined by each laboratory for each application. General Protocols are available in the Technical Information section on our website.
Data Examples
Cell Proliferation Induced by VEGF‑D and Neutralization by Human VEGF‑D Antibody. Recombinant Human VEGF‑D (Catalog # 622-VD) stimulates proliferation in HMVEC human microvascular endothelial cells in a dose-dependent manner (orange line). Proliferation elicited by Recombinant Human VEGF‑D (1 µg/mL) is neutralized (green line) by increasing concentrations of Goat Anti-Human VEGF-D Antigen Affinity-purified Polyclonal Antibody (Catalog # AF286). The ND50 is typically 3-10 µg/mL.
Immunohistochemistry
VEGF‑D in Human Prostate. VEGF‑D was detected in immersion fixed frozen sections of human prostate (cross-section through a blood vessel) using 15 µg/mL Goat Anti-Human VEGF‑D Antigen Affinity-purified Polyclonal Antibody (Catalog # AF286) overnight at 4 °C. Tissue was stained with the Anti-Goat HRP-DAB Cell & Tissue Staining Kit (brown; Catalog # CTS008) and counterstained with hematoxylin (blue). View our protocol for Chromogenic IHC Staining of Frozen Tissue Sections.
Preparation and Storage
  • Reconstitution
    Reconstitute at 0.2 mg/mL in sterile PBS.
  • Shipping
    The product is shipped at ambient temperature. Upon receipt, store it immediately at the temperature recommended below. *Small pack size (SP) is shipped with polar packs. Upon receipt, store it immediately at -20 to -70 °C
  • Stability & Storage
    Use a manual defrost freezer and avoid repeated freeze-thaw cycles.
    • 12 months from date of receipt, -20 to -70 °C as supplied.
    • 1 month, 2 to 8 °C under sterile conditions after reconstitution.
    • 6 months, -20 to -70 °C under sterile conditions after reconstitution.
Background: VEGF-D

Vascular endothelial growth factor D (VEGF-D), also known as c-fos-induced growth factor (FIGF), is a secreted glycoprotein of the VEGF/PDGF family. VEGFs regulate angiogenesis and lymphangiogenesis during development and tumor growth, and are characterized by eight conserved cysteine residues that form a cystine knot structure (1-3). VEGF-C and VEGF-D, which share 23% amino acid (aa) sequence identity, are uniquely expressed as preproproteins that contain long N- and C‑terminal propeptide extensions around the VEGF homology domain (VHD) (1, 2). Proteolytic processing of the 354 aa VEGF-D preproprotein creates a secreted proprotein. Further processing by extracellular serine proteases, such as plasmin or furin-like proprotein convertases, forms mature VEGF-D consisting of non-covalently linked 42 kDa homodimers of the 117 aa VHD (4-6). Mature human VEGF-D shares 94%, 95%, 99%, 97%, and 93% aa identity with mouse, rat, equine, canine and bovine VEGF-D, respectively (4, 5). It is expressed in adult lung, heart, muscle, and small intestine, and is most abundantly expressed in fetal lungs and skin (1-4). Mouse and human VEGF-D are ligands for VEGF Receptor 3 (VEGF R3; also called Flt-4) that are active across species and show enhanced affinity when processed (7). Processed human VEGF-D is also a ligand for VEGF R2, also called Flk-1 or KDR (7). VEGF R3 is strongly expressed in lymphatic endothelial cells and is essential for regulation of the growth and differentiation of lymphatic endothelium (1, 2). While VEGF-C is the critical ligand for VEGF R3 during embryonic lymphatic development, VEGF-D is most active in neonatal lymphatic maturation and bone growth (8-10). Both promote tumor lymphangiogenesis (11). Consonant with their activity on VEGF receptors, binding of VEGF-C and VEGF-D to neuropilins contributes to VEGF R3 signaling in lymphangiogenesis, while binding to integrin alpha 9 beta 1 mediates endothelial cell adhesion and migration (12, 13).

 

  • References:
    1. Roy, H. et al. (2006) FEBS Lett. 580:2879.
    2. Otrock, Z.H. et al. (2007) Blood Cells Mol. Dis. 38:258.
    3. Yamada, Y. et al. (1997) Genomics 42:483.
    4. Stacker, S.A. et al. (1999) J. Biol. Chem. 274:32127.
    5. McColl, B.K. et al. (2003) J. Exp. Med. 198:863.
    6. McColl, B.K. et al. (2007) FASEB J. 21:1088.
    7. Baldwin, M.E. et al. (2001) J. Biol. Chem. 276:19166.
    8. Baldwin, M.E. et al. (2005) Mol. Cell. Biol. 25:2441.
    9. Karpanen, T. et al. (2006) Am. J. Pathol. 169:708.
    10. Orlandini, M. et al. (2006) J. Biol. Chem. 281:17961.
    11. Stacker, S.A. et al. (2001) Nature Med. 7:186.
    12. Karpanen, T. et al. (2006) FASEB J. 20:1462.
    13. Vlahakis, N.E. et al. (2005) J. Biol. Chem. 280:4544.
  • Long Name:
    Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor D/cFos-induced Growth Factor
  • Entrez Gene IDs:
    2277 (Human); 14205 (Mouse)
  • Alternate Names:
    c-fos induced growth factor (vascular endothelial growth factor D); FIGF; vascular endothelial growth factor D; VEGFD; VEGF-D; VEGF-DVEGFDc-Fos-induced growth factor
Related Research Areas
Citations:

R&D Systems personnel manually curate a database that contains references using R&D Systems products. The data collected includes not only links to publications in PubMed, but also provides information about sample types, species, and experimental conditions.

8 Citations: Showing 1 - 8
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Species
Applications
Sample Type
  1. Synaptonemal complex protein 3 is associated with lymphangiogenesis in non-small cell lung cancer patients with lymph node metastasis
    Authors: H Kitano, JY Chung, KH Noh, YH Lee, TW Kim, SH Lee, SH Eo, HJ Cho, CH Choi, S Inoue, J Hanaoka, J Fukuoka, SM Hewitt
    J Transl Med, 2017;15(1):138.
    Species: Human
    Sample Type: Cell Lysates
    Application: WB
  2. Dilated thin-walled blood and lymphatic vessels in human endometrium: a potential role for VEGF-D in progestin-induced break-through bleeding.
    Authors: Donoghue JF, McGavigan CJ, Lederman FL
    PLoS ONE, 2012;7(2):e30916.
    Species: Human
    Sample Type: Cell Lysates
    Application: WB
  3. Radiogenic lymphangiogenesis in the skin.
    Authors: Jackowski S, Janusch M, Fiedler E, Marsch WC, Ulbrich EJ, Gaisbauer G, Dunst J, Kerjaschki D, Helmbold P
    Am. J. Pathol., 2007;171(1):338-48.
    Species: Human
    Sample Type: Whole Tissue
    Application: IHC Frozen
  4. Lymphatic reprogramming of microvascular endothelial cells by CEA-related cell adhesion molecule-1 via interaction with VEGFR-3 and Prox1.
    Authors: Kilic N, Oliveira-Ferrer L, Neshat-Vahid S, Irmak S, Obst-Pernberg K, Wurmbach JH, Loges S, Kilic E, Weil J, Lauke H, Tilki D, Singer BB, Ergun S
    Blood, 2007;110(13):4223-33.
    Species: Human
    Sample Type: Cell Lysates
    Application: WB
  5. Apoptosis of human macrophages by Flt-4 signaling: implications for atherosclerotic plaque pathology.
    Authors: Schmeisser A, Christoph M, Augstein A, Marquetant R, Kasper M, Braun-Dullaeus RC, Strasser RH
    Cardiovasc. Res., 2006;71(4):774-84.
    Species: Human
    Sample Type: Whole Tissue
    Application: IHC Paraffin-embedded
  6. The expression pattern of vascular endothelial growth factor C and D in human esophageal normal mucosa, dysplasia and neoplasia.
    Authors: Ishikawa M, Kazama S
    Hepatogastroenterology, 2004;51(59):1319-22.
    Species: Human
    Sample Type: Whole Tissue
    Application: IHC Paraffin-embedded
  7. Cyclooxygenase-2 induces EP1- and HER-2/Neu-dependent vascular endothelial growth factor-C up-regulation: a novel mechanism of lymphangiogenesis in lung adenocarcinoma.
    Authors: Su JL, Shih JY, Yen ML, Jeng YM, Chang CC, Hsieh CY, Wei LH, Yang PC, Kuo ML
    Cancer Res., 2004;64(2):554-64.
    Species: Human
    Sample Type: Cell Lysates
    Application: WB
  8. Expression of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)-D and its receptor, VEGF receptor 3, as a prognostic factor in endometrial carcinoma.
    Authors: Yokoyama Y, Charnock-Jones DS, Licence D, Yanaihara A, Hastings JM, Holland CM, Emoto M, Sakamoto A, Sakamoto T, Maruyama H, Sato S, Mizunuma H, Smith SK
    Clin. Cancer Res., 2003;9(4):1361-9.
    Species: Human
    Sample Type: Whole Tissue
    Application: IHC Paraffin-embedded
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