|Cell Proliferation Induced by IL-4 and Neutralization by Mouse IL-4 Antibody. Recombinant Mouse IL-4 (Catalog # 404-ML) stimulates proliferation in the HT-2 mouse T cell line in a dose-dependent manner (orange line). Proliferation elicited by Recombinant Mouse IL-4 (7.5 ng/mL) is neutralized (green line) by increasing concentrations of Rat Anti-Mouse IL-4 Monoclonal Antibody (Catalog # MAB404R). The ND50 is typically 0.1-0.6 µg/mL.|
Interleukin-4 (IL-4), also known as B cell-stimulatory factor-1, is a monomeric, approximately 13-18 kDa Th2 cytokine that shows pleiotropic effects during immune responses (1‑4). It is a glycosylated polypeptide that contains three intrachain disulfide bridges and adopts a bundled four alpha -helix structure (5). Mouse IL-4 is synthesized with a 24 amino acid (aa) signal sequence. Mature mouse IL-4 shares 39%, 39%, and 59% aa sequence identity with bovine, human, and rat IL-4, respectively. Human, mouse, and rat IL-4 are species-specific in their activities (6-8). IL-4 exerts its effects through two receptor complexes (9, 10). The type I receptor, which is expressed on hematopoietic cells, is a heterodimer of the ligand binding IL-4 R alpha and the common gamma chain (a shared subunit of the receptors for IL-2, -7, -9, -15, and -21). The type II receptor on nonhematopoietic cells consists of IL-4 R alpha and IL-13 R alpha 1. The type II receptor also transduces IL-13 mediated signals. IL-4 is primarily expressed by Th2-biased CD4+ T cells, mast cells, basophils, and eosinophils (1, 2). It promotes cell proliferation, survival, and immunoglobulin class switch to IgG1 and IgE in mouse B cells, acquisition of the Th2 phenotype by naïve CD4+ T cells, priming and chemotaxis of mast cells, eosinophils, and basophils, and the proliferation and activation of epithelial cells (11‑14). IL-4 plays a dominant role in the development of allergic inflammation and asthma (13, 15).
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