|Detection of ICOS in Human PBMCs by Flow Cytometry. Human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) either (A) untreated or (B) treated with 50 ng/mL PMA and 500 ng/mL calcium ionomycin for 24 hours were stained with Mouse Anti-Human ICOS Monoclonal Antibody (Catalog # MAB6975) followed by Allophycocyanin-conjugated Anti-Mouse IgG Secondary Antibody (Catalog # F0101B) and Mouse Anti-Human CD3 epsilon PE-conjugated Monoclonal Antibody (Catalog # FAB100P). Quadrant markers were set based on control antibody staining (Catalog # MAB002).|
Inducible costimulator (ICOS), also called AILIM (activiation-inducible lymphocyte immunomediatory molecule) and CRP-1 (CD28-related protein-1), is a member of the growing CD28 family of immune costimulatory receptors. Other family members are CD28, CTLA-4, and PD-1. Human ICOS is a homodimeric type I transmembrane protein consisting of 199 amino acids (aa) with a putative 20 aa signal sequence, a 121 aa extracellular domain, a 23 aa transmembrane region, and a 35 aa cytoplasmic domain. ICOS shares approximately 39% amino acid similarity with CD28 and CTLA-4. Human and mouse ICOS share approximately 72% amino acid identity. ICOS is expressed on most CD45RO+ cells. ICOS expression is up-regulated within approximately 24-48 hours of activation on Th primed cells. B7-H2, a member of the B7 family of costimulatory ligands, has been identified as the ICOS ligand. The B7-H2/ICOS interaction appears to play roles in T cell dependent B cell activation and Th differentiation.
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