Human/Mouse Gremlin Antibody

Catalog # Availability Size / Price Qty
Gremlin in Embryonic Mouse Ribs.
2 Images
Product Details
Citations (7)
Supplemental Products
Reviews (1)

Human/Mouse Gremlin Antibody Summary

Species Reactivity
Human, Mouse
Detects human and mouse Gremlin in direct ELISAs.
Polyclonal Goat IgG
Antigen Affinity-purified
Mouse myeloma cell line NS0-derived recombinant mouse Gremlin
Accession # O70326
Lyophilized from a 0.2 μm filtered solution in PBS with Trehalose. *Small pack size (SP) is supplied either lyophilized or as a 0.2 µm filtered solution in PBS.
Endotoxin Level
<0.10 EU per 1 μg of the antibody by the LAL method.


Recommended Concentration
3-15 µg/mL
See below
Blockade of Receptor-ligand Interaction
In a functional ELISA, 1-3 µg/mL of this antibody will block 50% of the binding of 100 ng/mL of Recombinant Human BMP-4 (Catalog # 314-BP) to immobilized Recombinant Mouse Gremlin (Catalog # 956-GR) coated at 5 µg/mL (100 µL/well).

Please Note: Optimal dilutions should be determined by each laboratory for each application. General Protocols are available in the Technical Information section on our website.

Data Examples

Immunohistochemistry Gremlin antibody in Embryonic Mouse Ribs by Immunohistochemistry (IHC-Fr). View Larger

Gremlin in Embryonic Mouse Ribs. Gremlin was detected in immersion fixed frozen sections of embryonic mouse ribs (15 d.p.c.) using 15 µg/mL Goat Anti-Human/Mouse Gremlin Antigen Affinity-purified Polyclonal Antibody (Catalog # AF956) overnight at 4 °C. Tissue was stained with the Anti-Goat HRP-DAB Cell & Tissue Staining Kit (brown; Catalog # CTS008) and counterstained with hematoxylin (blue). View our protocol for Chromogenic IHC Staining of Frozen Tissue Sections.

Immunohistochemistry Gremlin antibody in Human Breast Cancer Tissue by Immunohistochemistry (IHC-P). View Larger

Gremlin in Human Breast Cancer Tissue. Gremlin was detected in immersion fixed paraffin-embedded sections of human breast cancer tissue using Goat Anti-Human/Mouse Gremlin Antigen Affinity-purified Polyclonal Antibody (Catalog # AF956) at 3 µg/mL for 1 hour at room temperature followed by incubation with the Anti-Goat IgG VisUCyte™ HRP Polymer Antibody (Catalog # VC004). Before incubation with the primary antibody, tissue was subjected to heat-induced epitope retrieval using Antigen Retrieval Reagent-Basic (Catalog # CTS013). Tissue was stained using DAB (brown) and counterstained with hematoxylin (blue). Specific staining was localized to cytoplasm. View our protocol for IHC Staining with VisUCyte HRP Polymer Detection Reagents.

Reconstitution Calculator

Reconstitution Calculator

The reconstitution calculator allows you to quickly calculate the volume of a reagent to reconstitute your vial. Simply enter the mass of reagent and the target concentration and the calculator will determine the rest.


Preparation and Storage

Reconstitute at 0.2 mg/mL in sterile PBS.
Reconstitution Buffer Available
Reconstitution Buffer 1 (PBS)
Catalog #
Size / Price
The product is shipped at ambient temperature. Upon receipt, store it immediately at the temperature recommended below. *Small pack size (SP) is shipped with polar packs. Upon receipt, store it immediately at -20 to -70 °C
Stability & Storage
Use a manual defrost freezer and avoid repeated freeze-thaw cycles.
  • 12 months from date of receipt, -20 to -70 °C as supplied.
  • 1 month, 2 to 8 °C under sterile conditions after reconstitution.
  • 6 months, -20 to -70 °C under sterile conditions after reconstitution.

Background: Gremlin

Gremlin was identified in a Xenopus expression-cloning screen as a dorsalizing factor that can induce a secondary axis. A rat homolog, called Drm, was identified as a cDNA that was downregulated in v-mos transfected cells. Gremlin/Drm belongs to the DAN family of secreted glycoproteins that are BMP antagonists. Other members of the family include: cerberus, Dante, PRDC, caronte and DAN. DAN family members share a cysteine-rich domain that is structurally related to the cysteine-knot motif found in TGF-beta superfamily ligands. In vitro, Gremlin/Drm binds BMP-4 and BMP-2 indicating that it might interfere with BMP signaling. Gremlin/Drm acts as a BMP-2/4 antagonist in a variety of tissues and developmental processes including: Xenopus animal cap explants, chick limb bud outgrowth and chondrogenesis, murine lung branching morphogenesis, and osteogenic differentiation of mouse myoblasts and bone marrow stromal cells. In addition, expression of Gremlin/Drm has been shown to be downregulated in a wide range of human cancer cell lines. Mouse, human, chick and Xenopus homologs of Gremlin share over 80% amino acid identity. It is likely that various DAN family members and other BMP antagonists including Noggin, Chordin, Follistatin and TSG can selectively antagonize the activities of different subsets of TGF-beta superfamily ligands.

  1. Hsu, D.R. et al. (1998) Mol. Cell 1:673.
  2. Merino, R. et al. (1999) Development 126:5515.
  3. Shi, W. et al. (2001) Am. J. Physiol. Lung Cell Mol. Physiol. 280:L1030.
  4. Topol, L.Z. et al. (2000) J. Biol. Chem. 275:8785.
Entrez Gene IDs
26585 (Human); 23892 (Mouse)
Alternate Names
Cell proliferation-inducing gene 2 protein; CKTSF1B1gremlin 1, cysteine knot superfamily, homolog; Cysteine knot superfamily 1, BMP antagonist 1gremlin 1, cysteine knot superfamily, homolog (Xenopus laevis); DAN domain family member 2; DAND2; DAND2GREMLIN; Down-regulated in Mos-transformed cells protein; DRM; DRMMGC126660; GREM1; gremlin 1; gremlin 1-like protein; Gremlin; gremlin-1; IHG-2; Increased in high glucose protein 2; increased in high glucose-2; proliferation-inducing gene 2

Product Datasheets

Citations for Human/Mouse Gremlin Antibody

R&D Systems personnel manually curate a database that contains references using R&D Systems products. The data collected includes not only links to publications in PubMed, but also provides information about sample types, species, and experimental conditions.

7 Citations: Showing 1 - 7
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  1. Distinct fibroblast subsets regulate lacteal integrity through YAP/TAZ-induced VEGF-C in intestinal villi
    Authors: SP Hong, MJ Yang, H Cho, I Park, H Bae, K Choe, SH Suh, RH Adams, K Alitalo, D Lim, GY Koh
    Nat Commun, 2020;11(1):4102.
    Species: Mouse
    Sample Types: Whole Tissue
    Applications: IHC
  2. Vital Roles of Gremlin-1 in Pulmonary Arterial Hypertension Induced by Systemic-to-Pulmonary Shunts
    Authors: L Meng, X Teng, Y Liu, C Yang, S Wang, W Yuan, J Meng, H Chi, L Duan, X Liu
    J Am Heart Assoc, 2020;9(15):e016586.
    Species: Human
    Sample Types: Whole Tissue
    Applications: IHC
  3. The role of Bmp2 in the maturation and maintenance of the murine knee joint
    Authors: LW Gamer, S Pregizer, J Gamer, M Feigenson, A Ionescu, Q Li, L Han, V Rosen
    J. Bone Miner. Res., 2018;0(0):.
    Species: Mouse
    Sample Types: Whole Tissue
    Applications: IHC-P
  4. Multi-physics interactions drive VEGFR2 relocation on endothelial cells
    Authors: V Damioli, A Salvadori, GP Beretta, C Ravelli, S Mitola
    Sci Rep, 2017;7(1):16700.
    Species: Bovine
    Sample Types: Whole Cells
    Applications: ICC
  5. Tubular overexpression of gremlin induces renal damage susceptibility in mice.
    Authors: Droguett A, Krall P, Burgos M, Valderrama G, Carpio D, Ardiles L, Rodriguez-Diez R, Kerr B, Walz K, Ruiz-Ortega M, Egido J, Mezzano S
    PLoS ONE, 2014;9(7):e101879.
    Species: Human
    Sample Types: Whole Cells
    Applications: ICC
  6. A concentration-dependent endocytic trap and sink mechanism converts Bmper from an activator to an inhibitor of Bmp signaling.
    Authors: Kelley R, Ren R, Pi X, Wu Y, Moreno I, Willis M, Moser M, Ross M, Podkowa M, Attisano L, Patterson C
    J. Cell Biol., 2009;184(4):597-609.
    Species: Mouse
    Sample Types: Cell Lysates
    Applications: Western Blot
  7. Bone morphogenic protein antagonist Drm/gremlin is a novel proangiogenic factor.
    Authors: Stabile H, Mitola S, Moroni E, Belleri M, Nicoli S, Coltrini D, Peri F, Pessi A, Orsatti L, Talamo F, Castronovo V, Waltregny D, Cotelli F, Ribatti D, Presta M
    Blood, 2007;109(5):1834-40.
    Species: Bovine
    Sample Types: Cell Lysates
    Applications: Western Blot


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Mouse Gremlin Antibody
By Anonymous on 07/09/2018
Application: ELISA Sample Tested: Recombinant protein Species: Human