Human/Mouse/Rat Activin A beta A subunit Antibody

(9 citations)   
  • Species Reactivity
    Human, Mouse, Rat
  • Specificity
    Detects recombinant human Activin A in ELISAs. Also recognizes Activin A precursor. The amino acid sequences of mature beta A subunits from human, mouse and rat are identical. Therefore, this antibody will also detect the mature beta A subunit from mouse and rat.
  • Source
    Monoclonal Mouse IgG1 Clone # 69403
  • Purification
    Protein A or G purified from hybridoma culture supernatant
  • Immunogen
    Chinese hamster ovary cell line CHO-derived recombinant human Activin A
  • Formulation
    Lyophilized from a 0.2 μm filtered solution in PBS with Trehalose. *Small pack size (SP) is supplied as a 0.2 µm filtered solution in PBS.
  • Endotoxin Level
    <0.10 EU per 1 μg of the antibody by the LAL method.
  • Label
    Unconjugated
Applications
  •  
    Recommended
    Concentration
    Sample
    • Human/Mouse/Rat Activin A Sandwich Immunoassay
      Reagent
  • ELISA Capture (Matched Antibody Pair)
    2-8 µg/mL 
    Human/Mouse/Rat Activin A beta A subunit Antibody (Catalog # MAB3381)
  • ELISA Detection (Matched Antibody Pair)
    0.5-2.0 µg/mL 
    Human/Mouse/Rat Activin A beta A subunit Biotinylated Antibody (Catalog # BAM3381)
  • Neutralization
    Measured by its ability to neutralize Activin A-induced hemoglobin expression in the K562 human chronic myelogenous leukemia cell line. The Neutralization Dose (ND50) is typically 0.02-0.06 µg/mL in the presence of 7.5 ng/mL Recombinant Human/Mouse/Rat Activin A.
Please Note: Optimal dilutions should be determined by each laboratory for each application. General Protocols are available in the Technical Information section on our website.
Data Examples
Hemoglobin Expression Induced by Activin A and Neutralization by Human/
Mouse/Rat Activin A Antibody.

Recombinant Human/Mouse/
Rat Activin A (Catalog # 338-AC) increases hemoglobin expression in the K562 human chronic myelogenous leukemia cell line in a dose-dependent manner (orange line), as measured by the psuedoperoxidase assay. Hemoglobin Expression elicited by Recombinant Human/Mouse/Rat Activin A (7.5 ng/mL) is neutralized (green line) by increasing concentrations of Goat Anti-Human/Mouse/Rat Activin A beta A subunit Monoclonal Antibody (Catalog # MAB3381). The ND50 is typically 0.02-0.06 µg/mL.

Preparation and Storage
  • Reconstitution
    Reconstitute at 0.5 mg/mL in sterile PBS.
  • Shipping
    The product is shipped at ambient temperature. Upon receipt, store it immediately at the temperature recommended below. *Small pack size (SP) is shipped with polar packs. Upon receipt, store it immediately at -20 to -70 °C
  • Stability & Storage
    Use a manual defrost freezer and avoid repeated freeze-thaw cycles.
    • 12 months from date of receipt, -20 to -70 °C as supplied.
    • 1 month, 2 to 8 °C under sterile conditions after reconstitution.
    • 6 months, -20 to -70 °C under sterile conditions after reconstitution.
Background: Activin A
Activin and Inhibin are members of the TGF-beta superfamily of cytokines and are involved in a wide range of biological processes including tissue morphogenesis and repair, fibrosis, inflammation, neural development, hematopoiesis, reproductive system function, and carcinogenesis (1‑7). Activin and Inhibin are produced as precursor proteins. Their amino terminal propeptides are proteolytically cleaved and facilitate formation of disulfide-linked dimers of the bioactive proteins (8, 9). Activins are nonglycosylated homodimers or heterodimers of various beta  subunits ( beta A, beta B, beta C, and beta E in mammals), while Inhibins are heterodimers of a unique alpha  subunit and one of the beta  subunits. Activin A is a widely expressed homodimer of two beta A chains. The beta A subunit can also heterodimerize with a beta B or beta C subunit to form Activin AB and Activin AC, respectively (10). The 14 kDa mature human beta A chain shares 100% amino acid sequence identity with bovine, feline, mouse, porcine, and rat beta A. Activin A exerts its biological activities by binding to the type 2 serine/threonine kinase Activin RIIA which then noncovalently associates with the type 1 serine/threonine kinase Activin RIB/ALK-4 (7, 11). Signaling through this receptor complex leads to Smad activation and regulation of activin-responsive gene transcription (7, 11). The bioactivity of Activin A is regulated by a variety of mechanisms (11). BAMBI, Betaglycan, and Cripto are cell-associated molecules that function as decoy receptors or limit the ability of Activin A to induce receptor complex assembly (12‑14). The intracellular formation of Activin A can be prevented by the incorporation of the beta A subunit into Activin AC or Inhibin A (3, 10). And the bioavailability of Activin A is restricted by its incorporation into inactive complexes with alpha 2-Macroglobulin, Follistatin, and FLRG (15, 16).
  • References:
    1. Kumanov, P. et al. (2005) Reprod. Biomed. Online 10:786.
    2. Maeshima, A. et al. (2008) Endocr. J. 55:1.
    3. Rodgarkia-Dara, C. et al. (2006) Mutat. Res. 613:123.
    4. Werner, S. and C. Alzheimer (2006) Cytokine Growth Factor Rev. 17:157.
    5. Xu, P. and A.K. Hall (2006) Dev. Biol. 299:303.
    6. Shav-Tal, Y. and D. Zipori (2002) Stem Cells 20:493.
    7. Chen, Y.G. et al. (2006) Exp. Biol. Med. 231:534.
    8. Gray, A.M. and A.J. Mason (1990) Science 247:1328.
    9. Mason, A.J. et al. (1996) Mol. Endocrinol. 10:1055.
    10. Thompson, T.B. et al. (2004) Mol. Cell. Endocrinol. 225:9.
    11. Harrison, C.A. et al. (2005) Trends Endocrinol. Metab. 16:73.
    12. Onichtchouk, D. et al. (1999) Nature 401:480.
    13. Gray, P.C. et al. (2002) Mol. Cell. Endocrinol. 188:254.
    14. Kelber, J.A. et al. (2008) J. Biol. Chem. 283:4490.
    15. Phillips, D.J. et al. (1997) J. Endocrinol. 155:65.
    16. Schneyer, A. et al. (2003) Endocrinology 144:1671.
  • Entrez Gene IDs:
    3624 (Human); 16323 (Mouse)
  • Alternate Names:
    Activin A; INHBA
Related Research Areas
Citations:

R&D Systems personnel manually curate a database that contains references using R&D Systems products. The data collected includes not only links to publications in PubMed, but also provides information about sample types, species, and experimental conditions.

9 Citations: Showing 1 - 9
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Species
Applications
Sample Type
  1. Activin A programs the differentiation of human TFH cells
    Nat Immunol, 2016;17(8):976-84.
    Species: Human
    Sample Type: Whole Cells
    Application: Bioassay
  2. Low miR-143/miR-145 Cluster Levels Induce Activin A Overexpression in Oral Squamous Cell Carcinomas, Which Contributes to Poor Prognosis.
    Authors: Bufalino A, Cervigne N, de Oliveira C, Fonseca F, Rodrigues P, Macedo C, Sobral L, Miguel M, Lopes M, Paes Leme A, Lambert D, Salo T, Kowalski L, Graner E, Coletta R
    PLoS ONE, 2015;10(8):e0136599.
    Species: Human
    Sample Type: Cell Culture Supernates
    Application: ELISA Development
  3. Adipose Stromal Cell Contact with Endothelial Cells Results in Loss of Complementary Vasculogenic Activity Mediated by Induction of Activin A.
    Authors: Merfeld-Clauss S, Lupov I, Lu H, March K, Traktuev D
    Stem Cells, 2015;33(10):3039-51.
    Species: Human
    Sample Type: Cell Culture Supernates
    Application: Neut
  4. Activin A skews macrophage polarization by promoting a proinflammatory phenotype and inhibiting the acquisition of anti-inflammatory macrophage markers.
    Authors: Sierra-Filardi E, Puig-Kroger A, Blanco FJ, Nieto C, Bragado R, Palomero MI, Bernabeu C, Vega MA, Corbi AL
    Blood, 2011;117(19):5092-101.
    Species: Human
    Sample Type: Whole Cells
    Application: Neut
  5. The neuroprotective effect of Activin A and B: implication for neurodegenerative diseases.
    Authors: Kupershmidt L, Amit T, Bar-Am O, Youdim MB, Blumenfeld Z
    J. Neurochem., 2007;103(3):962-71.
    Species: Human
    Sample Type: Cell Lysates
    Application: WB
  6. Activin A is an anticatabolic autocrine cytokine in articular cartilage whose production is controlled by fibroblast growth factor 2 and NF-kappaB.
    Authors: Alexander S, Watt F, Sawaji Y, Hermansson M, Saklatvala J
    Arthritis Rheum., 2007;56(11):3715-25.
    Species: Human
    Sample Type: Whole Cells
    Application: Neut
  7. Requirement of Smad3 for mast cell growth.
    Authors: Funaba M, Nakaya K, Ikeda T, Murakami M, Tsuchida K, Sugino H
    Cell. Immunol., 2006;240(1):47-52.
    Species: Mouse
    Sample Type: Cell Lysates
    Application: WB
  8. Fibroblast growth factor 2 modulates transforming growth factor beta signaling in mouse embryonic fibroblasts and human ESCs (hESCs) to support hESC self-renewal.
    Authors: Greber B, Lehrach H, Adjaye J
    Stem Cells, 2006;25(2):455-64.
    Species: Mouse
    Sample Type: Cell Culture Supernates
    Application: ELISA Development
  9. N-cadherin is regulated by activin A and associated with tumor aggressiveness in esophageal carcinoma.
    Authors: Utsunomiya T, Sonoda H, Mimori K
    Clin. Cancer Res., 2004;10(17):5702-7.
    Species: Human
    Sample Type: Tissue Homogenates
    Application: WB
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