Human TIM-3 Antibody Summary
Accession # P41273.1
Please Note: Optimal dilutions should be determined by each laboratory for each application. General Protocols are available in the Technical Information section on our website.
4‑1BB Ligand/TNFSF9 in Human Crohn's Disease Intestine. 4‑1BB Ligand/TNFSF9 was detected in immersion fixed paraffin-embedded sections of human Crohn's disease intestine using Rabbit Anti-Human 4‑1BB Ligand/TNFSF9 Monoclonal Antibody (Catalog # MAB22951) at 3 µg/mL overnight at 4 °C. Before incubation with the primary antibody, tissue was subjected to heat-induced epitope retrieval using Antigen Retrieval Reagent-Basic (Catalog # CTS013). Tissue was stained using the Anti-Sheep HRP-DAB Cell & Tissue Staining Kit (brown; Catalog # CTS019) and counterstained with hematoxylin (blue). Specific staining was localized to cytoplasm. View our protocol for Chromogenic IHC Staining of Paraffin-embedded Tissue Sections.
Preparation and Storage
- 12 months from date of receipt, -20 to -70 °C as supplied.
- 1 month, 2 to 8 °C under sterile conditions after reconstitution.
- 6 months, -20 to -70 °C under sterile conditions after reconstitution.
4-1BB Ligand (4-1BBL; also CD137L) is a 32 kDa type II transmembrane protein that belongs to the TNF superfamily (TNFSF) molecules (1‑4). The human 4-1BBL cDNA encodes a 254 amino acid (aa) protein that contains a 25 aa N-terminal cytoplasmic domain, a 23 aa transmembrane segment, and a 206 aa C-terminal extracellular region (5). The extracellular domain (ECD) of 4-1BBL has a jelly-roll, beta -sandwich tertiary structure that is similar to other TNFSF members. There is only one cysteine in the human ECD, and no potential N-linked glycosylation sites. The potential exists, however, for O-linked glycosylation. The human 4-1BBL ECD shares 32% and 35% aa identity with mouse and rat ECD, respectively. In the cytoplasmic domain, human 4-1BBL is 55 aa shorter than the equivalent region in rodents. 4-1BBL is expressed by activated B cells, macrophages, dendritic cells, activated T cells, neurons and astrocytes (2, 3, 6). A bioactive 26 kDa soluble form of 4-1BBL, presumably generated by MMP cleavage, occurs in humans (4). Human 4-1BBL signals through both CD137/4-1BB and itself. Its cytoplasmic tail participates in reverse signaling that induces apoptosis in T cells and cytokine secretion (IL-6; TNF-alpha ) by monocytes (7, 8). 4-1BBL binding to CD137/4-1BB produces a number of effects. It seems to play a key role in the T cell recall response. It maintains T cell numbers at the end of a primary response, and induces CD4+ and CD8+ T cells to proliferate and secrete cytokines such as IL-2 and IFN-gamma in CD4+ cells, and IFN-gamma in CD8+ cells (9, 10).
- Kwon, B. et al. (2003) Exp. Mol. Med. 35:8.
- Salih, H.R. et al. (2002) Int. J. Clin. Pharmacol. Ther. 40:348.
- Vinay, D.S. and B.S. Kwon (1998) Semin. Immunol. 1:481.
- Salih, H.R. et al. (2001) J. Immunol. 167:4059.
- Alderson, M.R. et al. (1994) Eur. J. Immunol. 24:2219.
- Reali, C. et al. (2003) J. Neurosci. Res. 74:67.
- Michel, J. et al. (1999) Immunology 98:42.
- Langstein, J. et al. (1998) J. Immunol. 160:2488.
- Wen, T. et al. (2002) J. Immunol. 168:4897.
- Dawicki, W. and T.H. Watts (2004) Eur. J. Immunol. 34:743.
Citations for Human TIM-3 Antibody
R&D Systems personnel manually curate a database that contains references using R&D Systems products. The data collected includes not only links to publications in PubMed, but also provides information about sample types, species, and experimental conditions.
Citations: Showing 1 - 3
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Frontline Science: Tim-3-mediated dysfunctional engulfment of apoptotic cells in SLE
Authors: D Zhao, M Guo, B Liu, Q Lin, T Xie, Q Zhang, X Jia, Q Shu, X Liang, L Gao, C Ma
J. Leukoc. Biol., 2017;0(0):.
Sample Types: Plasma
Tim-3 is a Marker of Plasmacytoid Dendritic Cell Dysfunction during HIV Infection and Is Associated with the Recruitment of IRF7 and p85 into Lysosomes and with the Submembrane Displacement of TLR9
Authors: JA Schwartz, KL Clayton, S Mujib, H Zhang, AK Rahman, J Liu, FY Yue, E Benko, C Kovacs, MA Ostrowski
J. Immunol, 2017;0(0):.
Sample Types: Whole Cells
Human Galectin-9 Is a Potent Mediator of HIV Transcription and Reactivation
Authors: Mohamed Abdel-Mohs
PLoS Pathog, 2016;12(6):e1005677.
Sample Types: Whole Cells
Applications: Agonistic Activity
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