|Cell Proliferation Induced by GM‑CSF and Neutralization by Rat GM‑CSF Antibody. Recombinant Rat GM‑CSF induces proliferation in the DA3 mouse myeloma cell line in a dose-dependent manner (orange line), as measured by the Resazurin (Catalog # AR002). Under these conditions, proliferation elicited by rrGM‑CSF is neutralized (green line) by increasing concentrations of Goat Anti-Rat GM‑CSF Antigen Affinity-purified Polyclonal Antibody (Catalog # AF518). The ND50 is typically 0.1-0.6 ug/mL.|
GM-CSF was initially characterized as a factor that can support the in vitro colony formation of granulocyte-macrophage progenitors. It is also a growth factor for erythroid, megakaryocyte, and eosinophil progenitors. GM-CSF is produced by a number of different cell types (including T cells, B cells, macrophages, mast cells, endothelial cells, fibroblasts, and adipocytes) in response to cytokine or inflammatory stimuli. On mature hematopoietic cells, GM-CSF is a survival factor for and activates the effector functions of granulocytes, monocytes/macrophages, and eosinophils. GM-CSF promotes a Th1 biased immune response, angiogenesis, allergic inflammation, and the development of autoimmunity. It shows clinical effectiveness in ameliorating chemotherapy-induced neutropenia, and GM-CSF transfected tumor cells are utilized as cancer vaccines. The 22 kDa glycosylated GM-CSF, similar to IL‑3 and IL‑5, is a cytokine with a core of four bundled alpha ‑helices. Mature rat GM-CSF shares 56-69% amino acid sequence identity with canine, feline, human, mouse, and porcine GM‑CSF. GM‑CSF exerts its biological effects through a heterodimeric receptor complex composed of GM‑CSF R alpha /CD116 and the signal transducing common beta chain (CD131) which is also a component of the high-affinity receptors for IL-3 and IL-5. In addition, GM-CSF binds a naturally occurring soluble form of GM‑CSF R alpha. Rat GM‑CSF is active on mouse cells, although mouse GM‑CSF is only weakly active on rat cells.