Rat IL-18/IL-1F4 Antibody Summary
Accession # P97636
Please Note: Optimal dilutions should be determined by each laboratory for each application. General Protocols are available in the Technical Information section on our website.
IFN‑ gamma Secretion Induced by IL‑18/IL‑1F4 and Neutralization by Rat IL‑18/IL‑1F4 Antibody. In the presence of Recombinant Mouse IL‑12 (0.1 ng/mL, Catalog # 419‑ML), Recombinant Rat IL‑18/IL‑1F4 (Catalog # 521‑RL) stimulates IFN‑ gamma secretion in activated mouse T cells in a dose-dependent manner (orange line), as measured by the Mouse IFN‑ gamma Quantikine ELISA Kit (Catalog # MIF00). Under these conditions, IFN‑ gamma secretion elicited by Recombinant Rat IL‑18/IL‑1F4 (15 ng/mL) is neutralized (green line) by increasing concentrations of Rat IL‑18/IL‑1F4 Antigen Affinity-purified Polyclonal Antibody (Catalog # AF521). The ND50 is typically 1-3 µg/mL.
Preparation and Storage
- 12 months from date of receipt, -20 to -70 °C as supplied.
- 1 month, 2 to 8 °C under sterile conditions after reconstitution.
- 6 months, -20 to -70 °C under sterile conditions after reconstitution.
Interleukin-18 (IL-18), also known as IL-1F4 and IFN-gamma inducing factor (IGIF), is a member of the IL-1 family of cytokines and is a key molecule in the innate immune response (1). Rat IL-18 is synthesized as a 24 kDa proprotein that contains a 36 amino acid (aa) propeptide and a 158 aa mature region (2). Under inflammatory conditions, the propeptide is cleaved by Caspase-1 in the cytoplasm to liberate the mature nonglycosylated 18 kDa monomeric IL-18 (3, 4). Mature rat IL-18 shares 91% aa sequence identity with mouse IL-18 and 60-64% aa sequence identity with human, canine, feline, porcine, and rhesus macaque IL-18. IL-18 is secreted by a variety of cell types including macrophages, dendritic cells, and epithelial cells (1, 5). Circulating mature IL-18 is sequestered by soluble IL-18 binding proteins (IL-18 BP) that inhibit IL-18 bioactivity (6). IL-18 interacts with the widely expressed IL-18 R alpha which then recruits the signaling subunit IL-18 R beta (7, 8). The IL-1 family member IL-1F7 also binds to IL-18 R alpha but does not recruit IL-18 R beta or induce signaling (9). IL-1F7 binds IL-18 BP and enhances its neutralizing effect on IL-18 activity (9). IL-18 synergizes with other cytokines to activate NK, Th1, and Th17 cells and to increase the production of IFN-gamma (1, 5, 10-12). IL-18 can also promote Th2 cytokine release which reduces the effectiveness of antiviral responses (13, 14). Increased levels of active IL-18 contribute to the severity of autoimmunity and hypertension, while deficiency of IL-18 results in symptoms of metabolic syndrome (1, 5, 15, 16). In cancer, IL-18 stimulates Th1 and NK cells to target tumor cells, but it can also promote angiogenesis, metastasis, and tumor cell immune evasion (11).
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Citations for Rat IL-18/IL-1F4 Antibody
R&D Systems personnel manually curate a database that contains references using R&D Systems products. The data collected includes not only links to publications in PubMed, but also provides information about sample types, species, and experimental conditions.
Citations: Showing 1 - 5
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Interleukin-18 and its receptor are expressed in gonadotropin-releasing hormone neurons of mouse and rat forebrain
Authors: S Kuwahara-O, S Maeda, K Kobayashi, Y Minato, K Tanaka, K Yamanishi, M Hata, W Li, T Hayakawa, K Noguchi, H Okamura, H Yagi
Neurosci. Lett., 2017;0(0):.
Sample Types: Whole Tissue
Interleukin-18-mediated microglia/astrocyte interaction in the spinal cord enhances neuropathic pain processing after nerve injury.
Authors: Miyoshi K, Obata K, Kondo T, Okamura H, Noguchi K
J. Neurosci., 2008;28(48):12775-87.
Sample Types: In Vivo
Applications: In vivo
Inhibition of angiogenesis by interleukin-4 gene therapy in rat adjuvant-induced arthritis.
Authors: Haas CS, Amin MA, Allen BB, Ruth JH, Haines GK, Woods JM, Koch AE
Arthritis Rheum., 2006;54(8):2402-14.
Sample Types: Tissue Homogenates
Caspase-1-processed interleukins in hyperoxia-induced cell death in the developing brain.
Authors: Felderhoff-Mueser U, Sifringer M, Polley O, Dzietko M, Leineweber B, Mahler L, Baier M, Bittigau P, Obladen M, Ikonomidou C, Buhrer C
Ann. Neurol., 2005;57(1):50-9.
Sample Types: Tissue Homogenates
Role of IL-18 in acute lung inflammation.
Authors: Jordan JA, Guo RF, Yun EC, Sarma V, Warner RL, Crouch LD, Senaldi G, Ulich TR, Ward PA
J. Immunol., 2001;167(12):7060-8.
Sample Types: BALF
Applications: ELISA Development
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Fixed with 4%Polyoxymethylene and 15%saturation picric acid. Without antigen retrieval.
Frozen section, 20m, floating slice method.
First antibody 4 degrees over night and secondary antibody 2 hours at room-temperature.
Antigen retrieval in 99 degrees citrate buffer(pH 4.6) for 5min would benefit the output (not tested).
Green: Interleukin-18; red: Iba-1 (microglia marker).
Specificity: Reasonably specific
Sensitivity: Reasonably sensitive