Immersion fixed paraffin-embedded sections of human tonsil
Measured by its ability to neutralize CCL16/HCC‑4-induced chemotaxis in the BaF3 mouse pro‑B cell line transfected with human CCR1. The Neutralization Dose (ND50) is typically 4-16 µg/mL in the presence of 750 ng/mL Recombinant Human CCL16/HCC‑4.
Please Note: Optimal dilutions should be determined by each laboratory for each application. General Protocols are available in the Technical Information section on our website.
Chemotaxis Induced by CCL16/HCC‑4 and Neutralization by Human CCL16/HCC‑4 Antibody.
Recombinant Human CCL16/HCC‑4 (Catalog # 802‑HC) chemoattracts the BaF3 mouse pro‑B cell line transfected with human CCR1 in a dose-dependent manner (orange line). The amount of cells that migrated through to the lower chemotaxis chamber was measured by Resazurin (Catalog # AR002). Chemotaxis elicited by Recombinant Human CCL16/HCC‑4 (750 ng/mL) is neutralized (green line) by increasing concentrations of Goat Anti-Human CCL16/HCC‑4 Antigen Affinity-purified Polyclonal Antibody (Catalog # AF802). The ND50 is typically 4‑16 µg/mL.
Preparation and Storage
Reconstitute at 0.2 mg/mL in sterile PBS.
The product is shipped at ambient temperature. Upon receipt, store it immediately at the temperature recommended below. *Small pack size (SP) is shipped with polar packs. Upon receipt, store it immediately at -20 to -70 °C
Stability & Storage
Use a manual defrost freezer and avoid repeated freeze-thaw cycles.
12 months from date of receipt, -20 to -70 °C as supplied.
1 month, 2 to 8 °C under sterile conditions after reconstitution.
6 months, -20 to -70 °C under sterile conditions after reconstitution.
Human HCC-4, also named NCC-4, liver-expressed chemokine (LEC), and lymphocyte and monocyte chemoattractant (LMC), is a novel CC chemokine identified through bioinformatics. HCC-4 cDNA encodes a 120 amino acid (aa) residue precursor protein with a 23 aa residue predicted signal peptide that is cleaved to generate a 97 aa residue mature protein. HCC-4 is distantly related to other CC chemokines, exhibiting less than 30% aa sequence identity. Among these CC chemokines, HCC-4 has the most similarity to HCC-1. Two potential polyadenylation signals are present on the human HCC-4 gene, and as a result, two transcripts containing approximately 1,500 base pairs and 500 base pairs have been detected. HCC-4 is expressed weakly by some lymphocytes, including NK cells, gamma δ T cells, and some T cell clones. The expression of HCC-4 in monocytes is highly upregulated in the presence of IL-10. The HCC-4 gene has been mapped to chromosome 17q where multiple CC chemokines are clustered.
Recombinant HCC-4 has been shown to chemoattract human monocytes and THP-1 cells but not resting lymphocytes or neutrophils. HCC-4 has also been found to suppress proliferation of myeloid progenitor cells. The HCC-4 induced calcium flux in THP-1 cells can be desensitized by prior exposure to RANTES, suggesting that HCC-4 and RANTES share the same receptor in THP-1 cells.
Shoudai, K. et al. (1998) Biochim. Biophys. Acta 1396:273.
Hedrick, J. et al. (1998) Blood 91:4242.
Youn, B-S. et al. (1998) BBRC 247:217.
Entrez Gene IDs:
C-C motif chemokine 16; CCL16; chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 16; Chemokine CC-4; Chemokine LEC; CKb12; HCC4; HCC-4; HCC-4Liver-expressed chemokine; LCC-1Lymphocyte and monocyte chemoattractant; LEC; liver CC chemokine-1; LMC; LMCSmall-inducible cytokine A16; monotactin-1; Mtn-1; NCC-4; NCC4IL-10-inducible chemokine; NCC-4ILINCK; new CC chemokine 4; SCYA16MGC117051; SCYL4; small inducible cytokine subfamily A (Cys-Cys), member 16
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The data collected includes not only links to publications in PubMed,
but also provides information about sample types, species, and experimental conditions.
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