Cell Proliferation Induced by M‑CSF and Neutralization by Human M‑CSF Antibody. |
Recombinant Human M‑CSF (Catalog # 216-MC) stimulates proliferation in the M‑NFS‑60 mouse myelogenous leukemia lymphoblast cell line in a dose-dependent manner (orange line). Proliferation elicited by Recombinant Human M‑CSF (2.5 ng/mL) is neutralized (green line) by increasing concentrations of Goat Anti-Human M‑CSF Antigen Affinity-purified Polyclonal Antibody (Catalog # AF216). The ND50 is typically 0.01-0.03 µg/mL.
M-CSF, also known as CSF-1, is a four-alpha -helical-bundle cytokine that is the primary regulator of macrophage survival, proliferation and differentiation. M-CSF is also essential for the survival and proliferation of osteoclast progenitors. M-CSF also primes and enhances macrophage killing of tumor cells and microorganisms, regulates the release of cytokines and other inflammatory modulators from macrophages, and stimulates pinocytosis. M-CSF increases during pregnancy to support implantation and growth of the decidua and placenta. Sources of M-CSF include fibroblasts, activated macrophages, endometrial secretory epithelium, bone marrow stromal cells and activated endothelial cells. The M-CSF receptor (c-fms) transduces its pleotropic effects and mediates its endocytosis. M-CSF mRNAs of various sizes occur. Full length human M-CSF transcripts encode a 522 amino acid (aa) type I transmembrane (TM) protein with a 464 aa extracellular region, a 21 aa TM domain, and a 37 aa cytoplasmic tail that forms a 140 kDa covalent dimer. Differential processing produces two proteolytically cleaved, secreted dimers. One is an N- and O- glycosylated 86 kDa dimer, while the other is modified by both glycosylation and chondroitin-sulfate proteoglycan (PG) to generate a 200 kDa subunit. Although PG-modified M-CSF can circulate, it may be immobilized by attachment to type V collagen. Shorter transcripts encode M-CSF that lacks cleavage and PG sites and produces an N-glycosylated 68 kDa TM dimer and a slowly produced 44 kDa secreted dimer. Although forms may vary in activity and half-life, all contain the N-terminal 150 aa portion that is necessary and sufficient for interaction with the M-CSF receptor. The first 223 aa of mature human M-CSF shares 88%, 86%, 81% and 74% aa identity with corresponding regions of dog, cow, mouse and rat M-CSF, respectively. Human M-CSF is active in the mouse, but mouse M-CSF is reported to be species-specific.
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ELISA: Human M-CSF Antibody [AF216]
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