Human/Mouse GDF-3 Antibody

(1 citations)   
  • Species Reactivity
    Human, Mouse
  • Specificity
    Detects human and mouse GDF-3 in direct ELISAs and Western blots. In Western blots, less than 5% cross-reactivity with recombinant mouse (rm) GDF‑5, rmGDF‑6, rmGDF‑7, rmGDF‑8, and rmGDF‑9 is observed.
  • Source
    Polyclonal Goat IgG
  • Purification
    Antigen Affinity-purified
  • Immunogen
    E. coli-derived recombinant mouse GDF-3
    Ala253-Gly366
    Accession # Q07104
  • Formulation
    Lyophilized from a 0.2 μm filtered solution in PBS with Trehalose. *Small pack size (SP) is supplied as a 0.2 µm filtered solution in PBS.
  • Label
    Unconjugated
Applications
  •  
    Recommended
    Concentration
    Sample
  • Western Blot
    1.5 µg/mL
    See below
  • Immunohistochemistry
    5-15 µg/mL
    See below
  • Immunocytochemistry
    5-15 µg/mL
    See below
Please Note: Optimal dilutions should be determined by each laboratory for each application. General Protocols are available in the Technical Information section on our website.
Data Examples
Detection of Human GDF‑3 by Western Blot. Western blot shows lysates of BG01V human embryonic stem cells. PVDF membrane was probed with 1.5 µg/mL of Goat Anti-Human/Mouse GDF‑3 Antigen Affinity-purified Polyclonal Antibody (Catalog # AF958) followed by HRP-conjugated Anti-Goat IgG Secondary Antibody (Catalog # HAF017). A specific band was detected for GDF‑3 at approximately 42 kDa (as indicated). This experiment was conducted under reducing conditions and using Immunoblot Buffer Group 1.
Immunocytochemistry
GDF‑3 in BG01V Human Stem Cells. GDF‑3 was detected in immersion fixed BG01V human embryonic stem cells using Goat Anti-Human/Mouse GDF‑3 Antigen Affinity-purified Polyclonal Antibody (Catalog # AF958) at 10 µg/mL for 3 hours at room temperature. Cells were stained using the NorthernLights™ 557-conjugated Anti-Goat IgG Secondary Antibody (red; Catalog # NL001) and counterstained with DAPI (blue). Specific staining was localized to cytoplasm. View our protocol for Fluorescent ICC Staining of Cells on Coverslips.
Immunohistochemistry
GDF‑3 in Mouse Thymus. GDF‑3 was detected in perfusion fixed frozen sections of mouse thymus using Mouse GDF‑3 Antigen Affinity-purified Polyclonal Antibody (Catalog # AF958) at 15 µg/mL overnight at 4 °C. Tissue was stained using the Anti-Goat HRP-DAB Cell & Tissue Staining Kit (brown; Catalog # CTS008) and counterstained with hematoxylin (blue). Lower panel shows a lack of labeling if primary antibodies are omitted and tissue is stained only with secondary antibody followed by incubation with detection reagents. View our protocol for Chromogenic IHC Staining of Frozen Tissue Sections.
Immunohistochemistry
GDF‑3 in Mouse Thymus. GDF‑3 was detected in perfusion fixed frozen sections of mouse thymus using 5 µg/mL Mouse GDF‑3 Antigen Affinity-purified Polyclonal Antibody (Catalog # AF958) overnight at
4 °C. Tissue was stained with the Anti-Goat HRP-DAB Cell & Tissue Staining Kit (brown; Catalog # CTS008) and counterstained with hematoxylin (blue). View our protocol for Chromogenic IHC Staining of Frozen Tissue Sections.
Preparation and Storage
  • Reconstitution
    Reconstitute at 0.2 mg/mL in sterile PBS.
  • Shipping
    The product is shipped at ambient temperature. Upon receipt, store it immediately at the temperature recommended below. *Small pack size (SP) is shipped with polar packs. Upon receipt, store it immediately at -20 to -70 °C
  • Stability & Storage
    Use a manual defrost freezer and avoid repeated freeze-thaw cycles.
    • 12 months from date of receipt, -20 to -70 °C as supplied.
    • 1 month, 2 to 8 °C under sterile conditions after reconstitution.
    • 6 months, -20 to -70 °C under sterile conditions after reconstitution.
Background: GDF-3

GDF-3 (previously called Vgr-2) is a TGF-beta superfamily member belonging to the growth/differentiation factor family (1, 2). GDF-3 is expressed in undifferentiated embryonic stem (ES) cells, adipose tissue and the brain (2-4). In ES cells, it maintains pluripotency and influences early cell fate decisions (5, 6). For example, frog embryos injected with GDF-3 develop a secondary dorsal axis and deletion of mouse GDF-3 can produce defects in the anterior visceral endoderm of the pre‑gastrulation embryo (5, 6). In adipocytes, GDF-3 is induced by a high fat diet and promotes adipogenesis (3). GDF-3 has been reported to oppose BMP’s functions and to have a nodal-like activity in early development (1). The 366 amino acid (aa) mouse GDF-3 contains a 22 aa signal sequence, a 230 aa propeptide and a 114 aa mature protein that contains one potential N-glycosylation site. Most of GDF-3 is present as the prepro form, while the mature GDF-3 is presumably the secreted, active form (1). The mature protein contains the cysteine-knot structure that is conserved throughout family members. Since it lacks the fourth cysteine, which is responsible for the formation of inter-molecular disulfide bond, GDF-3 may exist as a non-covalent homodimer. Mature mouse GDF-3 shares 90%, 83%, and 83% aa identity with rat, human and canine GDF-3, respectively. Among family members, mature GDF-3 is most similar to mouse BMP-6 (45% aa identity) and Xenopus VG‑1 (52% aa identity).

  • References:
    1. Levine, A.J. and A.H. Brivanlou (2006) Cell Cycle 5:1069.
    2. McPherron, A.C. and S-J. Lee (1993) J. Biol. Chem. 268:3444.
    3. Wang, W. et al. (2004) Biochem. Biophys. Res. Comm. 321:1024.
    4. Hexige, S. et al. (2005) Neurosci. Lett. 389:83.
    5. Levine, A.J. and A.H. Brivanlou (2005) Development 133:209.
    6. Chen, C. et al. (2006) Development 133:319.
  • Long Name:
    Growth Differentiation Factor 3
  • Entrez Gene IDs:
    9573 (Human); 14562 (Mouse)
  • Alternate Names:
    GDF3; GDF-3; growth differentiation factor 3; growth/differentiation factor 3; KFS3; MCOP7; MCOPCB6; Vgr-2
Related Research Areas
Citations:

R&D Systems personnel manually curate a database that contains references using R&D Systems products. The data collected includes not only links to publications in PubMed, but also provides information about sample types, species, and experimental conditions.

1 Citations: Showing 1 - 1

  1. GDF3 is a BMP inhibitor that can activate Nodal signaling only at very high doses.
    Authors: Levine AJ, Levine ZJ, Brivanlou AH
    Dev. Biol., 2009;325(1):43-8.
    Species: Xenopus
    Sample Type: Cell Lysates
    Application: WB
Cell and Tissue Staining Kits
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Anti-Goat HRP-DAB Cell & Tissue Staining Kit

CTS008 13
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Immunohistochemistry Reagents
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Antigen Retrieval Reagent-Universal

CTS015 10
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Antigen Retrieval Reagent-Basic

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Mounting Medium

CTS011 4
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Antigen Retrieval Reagent Sampler (50 mL each)

CTS016
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Antigen Retrieval Reagent-Acidic

CTS014
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NorthernLights Guard Mounting Media

NL996
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VisUCyte Antigen Retrieval Reagent-Universal

VCTS023
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VisUCyte Antigen Retrieval Reagent-Basic

VCTS021
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VisUCyte Antigen Retrieval Reagent-Acidic

VCTS022
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Isotype Controls
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Normal Goat IgG Control

Ctrl AB-108-C 191  
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Secondary Antibodies
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Goat IgG HRP-conjugated Antibody

WB, Simple Western HAF109 19  
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Goat IgG HRP-conjugated Antibody

WB HAF017 15  
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Goat IgG (H+L) PE-conjugated Antibody

Flow F0107 4  
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Donkey Anti-Goat IgG NorthernLights™ NL557-conjugated Antibody

Flow, IHC, ICC NL001 8
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Donkey Anti-Goat IgG NorthernLights™ NL493-conjugated Antibody

Flow, IHC, ICC NL003 5
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Goat IgG (H+L) APC-conjugated Antibody

Flow F0108 6  
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Goat IgG Horseradish Peroxidase-conjugated Antibody

WB HAF019 6  
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Donkey Anti-Goat IgG Antibody

WB AF109 6
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Donkey Anti-Goat IgG Biotinylated Antibody

WB BAF109 3
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Goat IgG VisUCyte HRP Polymer

IHC VC004  
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Goat IgG (H+L) Fluorescein-conjugated Antibody

Flow F0109 2  
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Donkey Anti-Goat IgG NorthernLights™ NL637-conjugated Antibody

Flow, IHC, ICC NL002
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Rabbit Anti-Goat IgG Biotinylated Antibody

WB BAF017
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Chicken Anti-Goat IgG Biotinylated Antibody

WB BAF019
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Rabbit Anti-Goat IgG (H+L) Affinity Purified PAb, X Absorbed

WB, ELISA R-401-C-ABS
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Donkey Anti-Goat IgG (H+L) PerCP-conjugated Antibody

Flow F0124
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