Human/Mouse/Rat Phospho-GSK-3 alpha / beta (S21/S9) Antibody

(4 citations)   
  • Species Reactivity
    Human, Mouse, Rat
  • Specificity
    Detects human, mouse, and rat GSK-3 beta when phosphorylated at S9, and human, mouse, and rat GSK‑3 alpha when phosphorylated at S21.
  • Source
    Polyclonal Rabbit IgG
  • Purification
    Antigen and protein A Affinity-purified
  • Immunogen
    Phosphopeptide containing GSK-3 beta S9 site
  • Formulation
    Lyophilized from a 0.2 μm filtered solution in PBS with Trehalose. *Small pack size (SP) is supplied as a 0.2 µm filtered solution in PBS.
  • Label
    Unconjugated
Applications
  •  
    Recommended
    Concentration
    Sample
  • Western Blot
    0.2 µg/mL
    See below
  • CyTOF-ready
    Ready to be labeled using established conjugation methods. No BSA or other carrier proteins that could interfere with conjugation.
  • Immunocytochemistry
    5-15 µg/mL
    Immersion fixed HeLa human cervical epithelial carcinoma cell
  • Intracellular Staining by Flow Cytometry
    2.5 µg/106 cells
    See below
Please Note: Optimal dilutions should be determined by each laboratory for each application. General Protocols are available in the Technical Information section on our website.
Data Examples
Intracellular Staining by Flow Cytometry
Detection of Phospho-GSK‑3 alpha / beta (S21/S9) in Jurkat Human Cell Line by Flow Cytometry. Jurkat human acute T cell leukemia cells, untreated (open histogram, yellow line), or treated with PI3-kinase inhibitors (dark orange filled histogram), were stained with Human/Mouse/Rat Phospho-GSK‑3 alpha / beta  (S21/S9) Antigen Affinity‑purified Polyclonal Antibody (Catalog # AF1590) or control antibody (Catalog # AB-105-C, blue open histogram), followed by Phycoerythrin-conjugated Anti-Rabbit IgG Secondary Antibody (Catalog # F0110). To facilitate intracellular staining, cells were fixed with paraformaldehyde and permeabilized with saponin.
Detection of Human Phospho-GSK‑3 alpha (S21) and GSK-3 beta (S9) by Western Blot. Western blot shows lysates of HeLa human cervical epithelial carcinoma cell line untreated (-) or treated (+) with 200 nM PMA for 20 minutes and MCF‑7 human breast cancer cell line untreated or treated with 100 ng/mL Recombinant Human IGF-1 (Catalog # 291‑G1) for 15 minutes. PVDF membrane was probed with 0.2 µg/mL of Human/Mouse/Rat Phospho-GSK‑3 alpha / beta (S21/S9) Antigen Affinity-purified Polyclonal Antibody (Catalog # AF1590), followed by HRP-conjugated Anti-Rabbit IgG Secondary Antibody (Catalog # HAF008). Specific bands were detected for Phospho-GSK‑3 alpha (S21) and GSK-3 beta (S9) at approximately 51 and 46 kDa (as indicated). This experiment was conducted under reducing conditions and using Immunoblot Buffer Group 1.
Preparation and Storage
  • Reconstitution
    Reconstitute at 0.2 mg/mL in sterile PBS.
  • Shipping
    The product is shipped at ambient temperature. Upon receipt, store it immediately at the temperature recommended below. *Small pack size (SP) is shipped with polar packs. Upon receipt, store it immediately at -20 to -70 °C
  • Stability & Storage
    Use a manual defrost freezer and avoid repeated freeze-thaw cycles.
    • 12 months from date of receipt, -20 to -70 °C as supplied.
    • 1 month, 2 to 8 °C under sterile conditions after reconstitution.
    • 6 months, -20 to -70 °C under sterile conditions after reconstitution.
Background: GSK-3 alpha/beta

GSK-3 is a Ser/Thr kinase first identified as an inactivator of Glycogen Synthase. GSK-3 acts as a multifunctional downstream switch that determines the output of numerous signaling pathways. There are two mammalian GSK-3 isoforms encoded by distinct genes, GSK-3 alpha and GSK-3 beta, which are structurally similar, but functionally non-identical. GSK-3a is inhibited by phosphorylation at S21 by Akt and other kinases. GSK-3 alpha and GSK-3 beta share 85% amino acid identity. Dysregulated GSK-3 has been implicated in several diseases including type II diabetes, Alzheimer's disease, bipolar disorder, and cancer.

  • Long Name:
    Glycogen Synthase Kinase 3
  • Alternate Names:
    DKFZp686D0638; EC 2.7.11; EC 2.7.11.26; glycogen synthase kinase 3 alpha; glycogen synthase kinase-3 alpha; GSK-3 alpha; GSK-3 alpha/beta
Related Research Areas
Citations:

R&D Systems personnel manually curate a database that contains references using R&D Systems products. The data collected includes not only links to publications in PubMed, but also provides information about sample types, species, and experimental conditions.

4 Citations: Showing 1 - 4
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Species
Applications
Sample Type
  1. HYS-32-Induced Microtubule Catastrophes in Rat Astrocytes Involves the PI3K-GSK3beta Signaling Pathway.
    Authors: Chiu C, Liao C, Shen C, Tang T, Jow G, Wang H, Wu J
    PLoS ONE, 2015;10(5):e0126217.
    Species: Rat
    Sample Type: Cell Lysates
    Application: WB
  2. Mycobacteria bypass mucosal NF-kB signalling to induce an epithelial anti-inflammatory IL-22 and IL-10 response.
    Authors: Lutay N, Hakansson G, Alaridah N, Hallgren O, Westergren-Thorsson G, Godaly G
    PLoS ONE, 2014;9(1):e86466.
    Species: Human
    Sample Type: Cell Lysates
    Application: WB
  3. Mechanical induction of PGE2 in osteocytes blocks glucocorticoid-induced apoptosis through both the beta-catenin and PKA pathways.
    Authors: Kitase Y, Barragan L, Qing H, Kondoh S, Jiang JX, Johnson ML, Bonewald LF
    J. Bone Miner. Res., 2011;25(12):2381-92.
    Species: Mouse
    Sample Type: Cell Lysates
    Application: WB
  4. Survival effect of PDGF-CC rescues neurons from apoptosis in both brain and retina by regulating GSK3beta phosphorylation.
    Authors: Tang Z, Arjunan P, Lee C, Li Y, Kumar A, Hou X, Wang B, Wardega P, Zhang F, Dong L, Zhang Y, Zhang SZ, Ding H, Fariss RN, Becker KG, Lennartsson J, Nagai N, Cao Y, Li X
    J. Exp. Med., 2010;207(4):867-80.
    Species: Rat
    Sample Type: Cell Lysates
    Application: WB
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