Perfusion fixed frozen sections of mouse spinal cord
Measured by its ability to neutralize Artemin-induced proliferation in the SH‑SY5Y human neuroblastoma cell line. The Neutralization Dose (ND50) is typically 0.1-0.3 µg/mL in the presence of 15 ng/mL Recombinant Mouse Artemin.
Please Note: Optimal dilutions should be determined by each laboratory for each application. General Protocols are available in the Technical Information section on our website.
Cell Proliferation Induced by Artemin and Neutralization by Mouse Artemin Antibody. Recombinant Mouse Artemin (Catalog # 1085-AR) stimulates proliferation in the SH‑SY5Y human neuroblastoma cell line in a dose-dependent manner (orange line). Proliferation elicited by Recombinant Mouse Artemin (15 ng/mL) is neutralized (green line) by increasing concentrations of Goat Anti-Mouse Artemin Antigen Affinity-purified Polyclonal Antibody (Catalog # AF1085). The ND50 is typically 0.1-0.3 µg/mL.
Preparation and Storage
Reconstitute at 0.2 mg/mL in sterile PBS.
The product is shipped at ambient temperature. Upon receipt, store it immediately at the temperature recommended below. *Small pack size (SP) is shipped with polar packs. Upon receipt, store it immediately at -20 to -70 °C
Stability & Storage
Use a manual defrost freezer and avoid repeated freeze-thaw cycles.
12 months from date of receipt, -20 to -70 °C as supplied.
1 month, 2 to 8 °C under sterile conditions after reconstitution.
6 months, -20 to -70 °C under sterile conditions after reconstitution.
Artemin is a member of the Glia Cell-Derived Neurotrophic factor (GDNF) family ligands, which include GDNF, Persephin, Artemin, and Neurturin. GDNF family ligands are distant members of the Transforming Growth Factor beta (TGF‑ beta ) superfamily (1‑4). Similar to other TGF‑ beta family proteins, Artemin is synthesized as a large precursor protein that is cleaved at the dibasic cleavage site (RXXR) to release the carboxy-terminal domain. The carboxy-terminal domain of Artemin contains the characteristic seven conserved cysteine residues necessary for the formation of the cysteine-knot and the single interchain disulfide bond. Biologically active Artemin is a disulfide‑linked homodimer of the carboxy-terminal 113 amino acid residues. Mature mouse Artemin shares 88.5% amino acid sequence similarity with human Artemin. Mature Artemin also shares approximately 40% amino acid sequence identity with the other three members of the GDNF family ligands (5). Bioactivities of all GDNF family ligands are mediated through a receptor complex composed of a high affinity ligand binding component (GFR alpha 1‑GFR alpha 4) and a common signaling component, cRET (receptor tyrosine kinase) (5‑8). Artemin prefers to bind to GFR alpha 3 and activites the GFR alpha 3‑RET. However, in the presence of RET, it can bind to GFR alpha 1 as well (4, 5, 9). Artemin has been shown to promote the survival and growth of various peripheral and central neurons, including sympathetic and dopaminergic neurons. It may also play an important role in the development of sympathetic neurons and several organs (5, 10, 11).
Lin, L-F.H. et al. (1993) Science 260:1130.
Milbrandt, J. et al. (1998) Neuron 20:245.
Kotzbauer, P.T. et al. (1996) Nature 384:467.
Baloh, R.H. et al. (1998) Neuron 21:1291.
Takahashi, M. (2001) Cytokine and Growth Factor Reviews 12:361.
R&D Systems personnel manually curate a database that contains references using R&D Systems products.
The data collected includes not only links to publications in PubMed,
but also provides information about sample types, species, and experimental conditions.
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