Recombinant Human Dkk-1 Protein, CF

(39 citations)   
  • Purity
    >95%, by SDS-PAGE with silver staining.
  • Endotoxin Level
    <1.0 EU per 1 μg of the protein by the LAL method.
  • Activity
    Measured by its ability to inhibit Wnt induced TCF reporter activity in HEK293 human embryonic kidney cells. Recombinant Human Dkk-1 (Catalog # 5439-DK/CF) inhibits a constant dose of 500 ng/mL of Recombinant Human Wnt-3a (Catalog # 5036‑WN). The ED50 for this effect is 10-60 ng/mL. Measured by its ability to inhibit Wnt-3a-induced alkaline phosphatase production by MC3T3‑E1 mouse preosteoblast cells. The ND50 for this effect is 0.03‑0.15 μg/mL in the presence of 10 ng/mL of Recombinant Mouse Wnt‑3a (Catalog # 1324-WN).
  • Source
    Spodoptera frugiperda, Sf 21 (baculovirus)-derived Thr32-His266
  • Accession #
  • N-terminal Sequence
    Analysis
    Thr32
  • Predicted Molecular Mass
    25.8 kDa
  • SDS-PAGE
    33-38 kDa, reducing conditions
Carrier Free
What does CF mean?
CF stands for Carrier Free (CF). We typically add Bovine Serum Albumin (BSA) as a carrier protein to our recombinant proteins. Adding a carrier protein enhances protein stability, increases shelf-life, and allows the recombinant protein to be stored at a more dilute concentration. The carrier free version does not contain BSA.
What formulation is right for me?
In general, we advise purchasing the recombinant protein with BSA for use in cell or tissue culture, or as an ELISA standard. In contrast, the carrier free protein is recommended for applications, in which the presence of BSA could interfere.
5439-DK/CF
 
5439-DK
Formulation Lyophilized from a 0.2 μm filtered solution in PBS.
Formulation Lyophilized from a 0.2 μm filtered solution in PBS with BSA as a carrier protein.
Reconstitution Reconstitute at 100 μg/mL in PBS.
Reconstitution Reconstitute at 100 μg/mL in PBS containing at least 0.1% human or bovine serum albumin.
Shipping The product is shipped at ambient temperature. Upon receipt, store it immediately at the temperature recommended below.
Shipping The product is shipped at ambient temperature. Upon receipt, store it immediately at the temperature recommended below.
Stability & Storage: Use a manual defrost freezer and avoid repeated freeze-thaw cycles.
  • 12 months from date of receipt, -20 to -70 °C as supplied.
  • 1 month, 2 to 8 °C under sterile conditions after reconstitution.
  • 3 months, -20 to -70 °C under sterile conditions after reconstitution.
Stability & Storage: Use a manual defrost freezer and avoid repeated freeze-thaw cycles.
  • 12 months from date of receipt, -20 to -70 °C as supplied.
  • 1 month, 2 to 8 °C under sterile conditions after reconstitution.
  • 3 months, -20 to -70 °C under sterile conditions after reconstitution.
Data Images
Recombinant Human Wnt‑3a (Catalog # 5036-WN) induces a dose responsive increase in Wnt reporter activity in HEK293 cells (green circles). Recombinant Human Dkk-1 (Catalog #
5439‑DK/CF) inhibits a constant dose of 500 ng/mL of Recombinant Human Wnt-3a. The ED50 for this effect is 10‑60 ng/mL (orange circles).

Recombinant Human Dkk-1 (Catalog #
5439‑DK/CF) inhibits Wnt-3a-induced alkaline phosphatase production by the MC3T3‑E1 mouse preosteoblast cell line. The ED50 for this effect is 0.03‑0.15 µg/mL.

1 μg/lane of Recombinant Human Dkk-1 was resolved with SDS-PAGE under reducing (R) conditions and visualized by silver staining, showing major bands at 33-38 kDa. Multiple bands in gel are due to variable glycosylation.

Background: Dkk-1

Dickkopf related protein 1 (Dkk-1) is the founding member of the Dickkopf family of proteins that includes Dkk-1, -2, -3, -4, and a related protein, Soggy (1, 2). Dkk proteins are secreted proteins that contain two conserved cysteine-rich domains separated by a linker region. Each domain contains ten cysteine residues (1‑3). Mature human Dkk-1 is a 40 kDa glycosylated protein that shares 86%, 87%, 90% and 91% aa sequence identity with mouse, rat, rabbit and bovine Dkk-1, respectively. It also shares 42% and 36% aa identity with human Dkk-2 and Dkk-4, respectively. Dkk-1 and Dkk-4 are well documented antagonists of the canonical Wnt signaling pathway (1, 2). This pathway is activated by Wnt engagement of a receptor complex composed of the Frizzled proteins and one of two low-density lipoprotein receptor-related proteins, LRP5 or LRP6 (4). Dkk-1 antagonizes Wnt by forming ternary complexes of LRP5/6 with Kremen1 or Kremen2 (4, 5). Dkk‑1/LRP6/Krm2 complex internalization has been shown to down-regulate Wnt signaling (4, 5). Dkk-1 is expressed throughout development and antagonizes Wnt-7a during limb development (6, 7). Other sites of expression include developing neurons, hair follicles and the retina of the eye (8, 9). The balance between Wnt signaling and Dkk-1 inhibition is critical for bone formation and homeostasis (10). Insufficient or excess Dkk-1 activity in bone results in increased or decreased bone density, respectively (8, 11). In adults, Dkk-1 is expressed in osteoblasts and osteocytes, and neurons. Cerebral ischemia induces Dkk-1 expression, which contributes to neuronal cell death (12).

  • References:
    1. Krupnik, V.E. et al. (1999) Gene 238:301.  
    2. Niehrs, C. (2006) Oncogene 25:7469. 
    3. Bullock, C.M. et al. (2004) Mol. Pharmacol. 65:582. 
    4. Mao, B. et al. (2001) Nature 411:321. 
    5. Mao, B. et al. (2002) Nature 417:664.  
    6. Kemp, C. et al. (2005) Dev. Dyn. 233:1064.
    7. Adamska, M. et al. (2004) Dev. Biol. 272:134.
    8. Li, J. et al. (2006) Bone 36:754.
    9. Verani, R. et al. (2006) J. Neurochem. 101:242.
    10. Pinzone, J.J. et al. (2009) Blood 113:517.
    11. Morvan, F. et al. (2006) J. Bone Miner. Res. 21:934.
    12. Cappuccio, I. et al. (2005) J. Neurosci. 25:2647.
  • Long Name:
    Dickkopf-1
  • Entrez Gene IDs:
    22943 (Human); 13380 (Mouse)
  • Alternate Names:
    dickkopf (Xenopus laevis) homolog 1; dickkopf homolog 1 (Xenopus laevis); dickkopf related protein-1; Dickkopf-1; dickkopf-related protein 1; Dkk1; Dkk-1; hDkk-1; SKdickkopf-1 like
Related Research Areas
Citations:

R&D Systems personnel manually curate a database that contains references using R&D Systems products. The data collected includes not only links to publications in PubMed, but also provides information about sample types, species, and experimental conditions.

39 Citations: Showing 1 - 10
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Species
Applications
Sample Type
  1. Autocrine WNT2 signaling in fibroblasts promotes colorectal cancer progression
    Authors: N Kramer, J Schmöllerl, C Unger, H Nivarthi, A Rudisch, D Unterleuth, M Scherzer, A Riedl, M Artaker, I Crncec, D Lenhardt, T Schwarz, B Prieler, X Han, M Hengstschl, J Schüler, R Eferl, R Moriggl, W Sommergrub, H Dolznig
    Oncogene, 2017;0(0):.
    Species: N/A
    Sample Type: Proteins
    Application: Bioassay
  2. Wnt3a Induces the Expression of Acetylcholinesterase during Osteoblast Differentiation via the Runx2 Transcription Factor
    Authors: ML Xu, CWC Bi, EYL Liu, TTX Dong, KWK Tsim
    J. Biol. Chem., 2017;0(0):.
    Species: Rat
    Sample Type: Whole Cells
    Application: Bioassay
  3. Human MSCs promotes colorectal cancer epithelial-mesenchymal transition and progression via CCL5/?-catenin/Slug pathway
    Authors: K Chen, Q Liu, LL Tsang, Q Ye, HC Chan, Y Sun, X Jiang
    Cell Death Dis, 2017;8(5):e2819.
    Species: Human
    Sample Type: Whole Cells
    Application: Bioassay
  4. Novel regulatory mechanisms for the SoxC transcriptional network required for visual pathway development
    Authors: KC Chang, J Hertz, X Zhang, XL Jin, P Shaw, BA Derosa, JY Li, P Venugopala, DA Valenzuela, RD Patel, KR Russano, SA Alshamekh, C Sun, K Tenerelli, C Li, D Velmeshev, Y Cheng, TM Boyce, A Dreyfuss, MS Uddin, KJ Muller, DM Dykxhoorn, JL Goldberg
    J. Neurosci., 2017;0(0):.
    Species: Human
    Sample Type: Whole Cells
    Application: Bioassay
  5. Ring finger protein 43 associates with gastric cancer progression and attenuates the stemness of gastric cancer stem-like cells via the Wnt-?/catenin signaling pathway
    Authors: Y Gao, A Cai, H Xi, J Li, W Xu, Y Zhang, K Zhang, J Cui, X Wu, B Wei, L Chen
    Stem Cell Res Ther, 2017;8(1):98.
    Species: Human
    Sample Type: Whole Cells
    Application: Bioassay
  6. WNT/?-Catenin signaling pathway regulates non-tumorigenesis of human embryonic stem cells co-cultured with human umbilical cord mesenchymal stem cells
    Authors: YH Chang, TY Chu, DC Ding
    Sci Rep, 2017;7(0):41913.
    Species: Human
    Sample Type: Whole Cells
    Application: Bioassay
  7. Wnt7a Inhibits IL-1? Induced Catabolic Gene Expression and Prevents Articular Cartilage Damage in Experimental Osteoarthritis
    Authors: AL Gibson, CK Hui Mingal, AT Foote, T Uchimura, M Zhang, L Zeng
    Sci Rep, 2017;7(0):41823.
    Species: Human
    Sample Type: Whole Cells
    Application: Bioassay
  8. Experimental Study of the Biological Properties of Human Embryonic Stem Cell-Derived Retinal Progenitor Cells
    Authors: J Shao, PY Zhou, GH Peng
    Sci Rep, 2017;7(0):42363.
    Species: Human
    Sample Type: Whole Cells
    Application: Bioassay
  9. Reductive carboxylation is a major metabolic pathway in the retinal pigment epithelium
    Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A., 2016;0(0):.
    Species: Human
    Sample Type: Whole Cells
    Application: Bioassay
  10. COX-2 Induces Breast Cancer Stem Cells via EP4/PI3K/AKT/NOTCH/WNT Axis
    Authors: Mousumi Majumder
    Stem Cells, 2016;0(0):.
    Species: Human
    Sample Type: Whole Cells
    Application: Bioassay
  11. Tumour suppressor TRIM33 targets nuclear beta-catenin degradation.
    Authors: Xue J, Chen Y, Wu Y, Wang Z, Zhou A, Zhang S, Lin K, Aldape K, Majumder S, Lu Z, Huang S
    Nat Commun, 2015;6(0):6156.
    Species: Human
    Sample Type: Whole Cells
    Application: Bioassay
  12. Isolation and characterization of embryonic stem cell-derived cardiac Purkinje cells.
    Authors: Maass K, Shekhar A, Lu J, Kang G, See F, Kim E, Delgado C, Shen S, Cohen L, Fishman G
    Stem Cells, 2015;33(4):1102-12.
    Species: Mouse
    Sample Type: Whole Cells
    Application: Bioassay
  13. A protein kinase A (PKA)/beta-catenin pathway sustains the BMP2/DLX3-induced osteogenic differentiation in dental follicle cells (DFCs).
    Authors: Viale-Bouroncle S, Klingelhoffer C, Ettl T, Reichert T, Morsczeck C
    Cell Signal, 2015;27(3):598-605.
    Species: Human
    Sample Type: Whole Cells
    Application: Bioassay
  14. Influence of Sex on Basal and Dickkopf-1 Regulated Gene Expression in the Bovine Morula.
    Authors: Denicol A, Leao B, Dobbs K, Mingoti G, Hansen P
    PLoS ONE, 2015;10(7):e0133587.
    Species: Bovine
    Sample Type: Whole Tissue
    Application: Bioassay
  15. Elevated levels of Dickkopf-1 are associated with beta-catenin accumulation and poor prognosis in patients with chondrosarcoma.
    Authors: Chen C, Zhou H, Zhang X, Ma X, Liu Z, Liu X
    PLoS ONE, 2014;9(8):e105414.
    Species: Human
    Sample Type: Whole Cells
    Application: Bioassay
  16. Inner ear hair cell-like cells from human embryonic stem cells.
    Authors: Ronaghi, Mohammad, Nasr, Marjan, Ealy, Megan, Durruthy-Durruthy, Robert, Waldhaus, Joerg, Diaz, Giovanni, Joubert, Lydia-Ma, Oshima, Kazuo, Heller, Stefan
    Stem Cells Dev, 2014;23(11):1275-84.
    Species: Human
    Sample Type: Whole Cells
    Application: Bioassay
  17. Wnts enhance neurotrophin-induced neuronal differentiation in adult bone-marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells via canonical and noncanonical signaling pathways.
    Authors: Tsai H, Deng W, Lai W, Chiu W, Yang C, Tsai Y, Hwang S, Renshaw P
    PLoS ONE, 2014;9(8):e104937.
    Species: Human
    Sample Type: Whole Cells
    Application: Bioassay
  18. CEP290 gene transfer rescues Leber congenital amaurosis cellular phenotype.
    Authors: Burnight E, Wiley L, Drack A, Braun T, Anfinson K, Kaalberg E, Halder J, Affatigato L, Mullins R, Stone E, Tucker B
    Gene Ther, 2014;21(7):662-72.
    Species: Human
    Sample Type: Whole Cells
    Application: Bioassay
  19. FGF16 promotes invasive behavior of SKOV-3 ovarian cancer cells through activation of mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling pathway.
    Authors: Basu M, Mukhopadhyay S, Chatterjee U, Roy S
    J Biol Chem, 2014;289(3):1415-28.
    Species: Human
    Sample Type: Whole Cells
    Application: Bioassay
  20. Wnt/beta-catenin signaling regulates the proliferation and differentiation of mesenchymal progenitor cells through the p53 pathway.
    Authors: Peng X, Yang L, Chang H, Dai G, Wang F, Duan X, Guo L, Zhang Y, Chen G
    PLoS ONE, 2014;9(5):e97283.
    Species: Human
    Sample Type: Whole Cells
    Application: Bioassay
  21. Screening drug-induced arrhythmia [corrected] using human induced pluripotent stem cell-derived cardiomyocytes and low-impedance microelectrode arrays.
    Authors: Navarrete E, Liang P, Lan F, Sanchez-Freire V, Simmons C, Gong T, Sharma A, Burridge P, Patlolla B, Lee A, Wu H, Beygui R, Wu S, Robbins R, Bers D, Wu J
    Circulation, 2013;128(11):S3-13.
    Species: Human
    Sample Type: Whole Cells
    Application: Bioassay
  22. Directed differentiation and functional maturation of cortical interneurons from human embryonic stem cells.
    Authors: Maroof A, Keros S, Tyson J, Ying S, Ganat Y, Merkle F, Liu B, Goulburn A, Stanley E, Elefanty A, Widmer H, Eggan K, Goldstein P, Anderson S, Studer L
    Cell Stem Cell, 2013;12(5):559-72.
    Species: Human
    Sample Type: Whole Cells
    Application: Bioassay
  23. Patient-specific iPSC-derived photoreceptor precursor cells as a means to investigate retinitis pigmentosa.
    Authors: Tucker, Budd A, Mullins, Robert F, Streb, Luan M, Anfinson, Kristin, Eyestone, Mari E, Kaalberg, Emily, Riker, Megan J, Drack, Arlene V, Braun, Terry A, Stone, Edwin M
    Elife, 2013;2(0):e00824.
    Species: Human
    Sample Type: Whole Cells
    Application: Bioassay
  24. Rapid and efficient directed differentiation of human pluripotent stem cells into retinal pigmented epithelium.
    Authors: Buchholz, David E, Pennington, Britney, Croze, Roxanne, Hinman, Cassidy, Coffey, Peter J, Clegg, Dennis O
    Stem Cells Transl Med, 2013;2(5):384-93.
    Species: Human
    Sample Type: Whole Cells
    Application: Bioassay
  25. Caveolin-1-LRP6 signaling module stimulates aerobic glycolysis in prostate cancer.
    Authors: Tahir S, Yang G, Goltsov A, Song K, Ren C, Wang J, Chang W, Thompson T
    Cancer Res, 2013;73(6):1900-11.
  26. Cell-cycle control of developmentally regulated transcription factors accounts for heterogeneity in human pluripotent cells.
    Authors: Singh A, Chappell J, Trost R, Lin L, Wang T, Tang J, Matlock B, Weller K, Wu H, Zhao S, Jin P, Dalton S
    Stem Cell Reports, 2013;1(6):532-44.
    Species: Human
    Sample Type: Whole Cells
    Application: Bioassay
  27. Drug screening using a library of human induced pluripotent stem cell-derived cardiomyocytes reveals disease-specific patterns of cardiotoxicity.
    Authors: Liang, Ping, Lan, Feng, Lee, Andrew S, Gong, Tingyu, Sanchez-Freire, Veronica, Wang, Yongming, Diecke, Sebastia, Sallam, Karim, Knowles, Joshua W, Wang, Paul J, Nguyen, Patricia, Bers, Donald M, Robbins, Robert C, Wu, Joseph C
    Circulation, 2013;127(16):1677-91.
    Species: Human
    Sample Type: Whole Cells
    Application: Bioassay
  28. Unraveling the signaling pathways promoting fibrosis in Dupuytren's disease reveals TNF as a therapeutic target.
    Authors: Verjee L, Verhoekx J, Chan J, Krausgruber T, Nicolaidou V, Izadi D, Davidson D, Feldmann M, Midwood K, Nanchahal J
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A, 2013;110(10):E928-37.
    Species: Human
    Sample Type: Whole Cells
    Application: Bioassay
  29. Receptor tyrosine kinase-like orphan receptor 2 (Ror2) expression creates a poised state of Wnt signaling in renal cancer.
    Authors: Rasmussen N, Wright T, Brooks S, Hacker K, Debebe Z, Sendor A, Walker M, Major M, Green J, Wahl G, Rathmell W
    J Biol Chem, 2013;288(36):26301-10.
    Species: Human
    Sample Type: Whole Cells
    Application: Bioassay
  30. Dickkopf 1 promotes regression of hair follicles.
    Authors: Kwack MH, Kim MK, Kim JC, Sung YK
    J. Invest. Dermatol., 2012;132(6):1554-60.
    Species: Mouse
    Sample Type: In Vivo
    Application: In Vivo
  31. Neuroblastoma and bone metastases: clinical significance and prognostic value of Dickkopf 1 plasma levels.
    Authors: Granchi D, Corrias MV, Garaventa A, Baglio SR, Cangemi G, Carlini B, Paolucci P, Giunti A, Baldini N
    Bone, 2011;48(1):152-9.
    Species: Human
    Sample Type: Whole Cells
    Application: Bioassay
  32. Direct differentiation of atrial and ventricular myocytes from human embryonic stem cells by alternating retinoid signals.
    Authors: Zhang Q, Jiang J, Han P, Yuan Q, Zhang J, Zhang X, Xu Y, Cao H, Meng Q, Chen L, Tian T, Wang X, Li P, Hescheler J, Ji G, Ma Y
    Cell Res., 2011;21(4):579-87.
    Species: Human
    Sample Type: Whole Cells
    Application: Bioassay
  33. Human RSPO1/R-spondin1 is expressed during early ovary development and augments beta-catenin signaling.
    Authors: Tomaselli S, Megiorni F, Lin L, Mazzilli MC, Gerrelli D, Majore S, Grammatico P, Achermann JC
    PLoS ONE, 2011;6(1):e16366.
    Species: Human
    Sample Type: Whole Cells
    Application: Bioassay
  34. Paracrine and autocrine signals induce and maintain mesenchymal and stem cell states in the breast.
    Authors: Scheel C, Eaton E, Li S, Chaffer C, Reinhardt F, Kah K, Bell G, Guo W, Rubin J, Richardson A, Weinberg R
    Cell, 2011;145(6):926-40.
    Species: Human
    Sample Type: Whole Cells
    Application: Bioassay
  35. The role of R-spondin2 in keratinocyte proliferation and epidermal thickening in keloid scarring.
    Authors: Chua AW, Ma D, Gan SU, Fu Z, Han HC, Song C, Sabapathy K, Phan TT
    J. Invest. Dermatol., 2011;131(3):644-54.
    Species: Human
    Sample Type: Whole Cells
    Application: Bioassay
  36. Efficient derivation of functional floor plate tissue from human embryonic stem cells.
    Authors: Fasano CA, Chambers SM, Lee G, Tomishima MJ, Studer L
    Cell Stem Cell, 2010;6(4):336-47.
    Species: Human
    Sample Type: Whole Cells
    Application: Bioassay
  37. Dkk-1 inhibits intestinal epithelial cell migration by attenuating directional polarization of leading edge cells.
    Authors: Koch S, Capaldo CT, Samarin S, Nava P, Neumaier I, Skerra A, Sacks DB, Parkos CA, Nusrat A
    Mol. Biol. Cell, 2009;20(22):4816-25.
    Species: Human
    Sample Type: Whole Cells
    Application: Bioassay
  38. Dkk-3 is elevated in CSF and plasma of Alzheimer's disease patients.
    Authors: Zenzmaier C, Marksteiner J, Kiefer A, Berger P, Humpel C
    J. Neurochem., 2009;110(2):653-61.
    Species: N/A
    Sample Type: N/A
    Application: IHC absorption control
  39. Wnt inhibitory factor (WIF)-1 inhibits osteoblastic differentiation in mouse embryonic mesenchymal cells.
    Authors: Cho SW, Yang JY, Sun HJ, Jung JY, Her SJ, Cho HY, Choi HJ, Kim SW, Kim SY, Shin CS
    Bone, 2009;44(6):1069-77.
    Species: Mouse
    Sample Type: Whole Cells
    Application: Bioassay
Expand to show all 39 Citations

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