Click on one of the choices in the Explore Pathways box to view a different resource.
The Renin-Angiotensin System is one arm of the overlapping systems that regulate blood pressure and blood volume homeostasis. In this system, Angiotensinogen/Serpin A8 is cleaved by Renin followed by multiple other proteases (e.g. ACE/CD143 and ACE-2) to generate a multitude of Angiotensin peptides. The receptors AT1R/AGTR1 and AT2R/AGTR2 enable the RAS to regulate vasoconstriction, heart rate and contractility, renal sodium retention, diuresis, glomerular filtration rate, insulin resistance, cellular glucose uptake, inflammation, oxidative stress, adipogenesis, sympathetic nervous system activity, coagulation, and fibrosis. The RAS works in tandem with other vasoactive peptides (e.g. Endothelin, natriuretic peptides (ANP, BNP, CNP), Vasopressin and neuronal-derived molecules (e.g. neurotransmitters, neuropeptides, eicosanoids, histamine). In response to hypertensive signals, it acts more slowly but for a longer duration than neural control of blood pressure. ACE inhibitors are a mainstay of hypertension medication.