Click on a cell type below to view a subset of molecules used as markers for the identification of that cell type.
Embryonic stem (ES) cells and induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells are self-renewing progenitors that have the capacity to differentiate into cells of the ectoderm, mesoderm, and endoderm. Naturally existing ES cells can be isolated from the inner cell mass of a blastocyst while iPS cells are generated from terminally differentiated somatic cells through induced expression of specific transcription factors, including Oct-3/4, KLF4, SOX2, and c-Myc. Regardless of the source, pluripotent stem cells hold enormous potential in basic and clinical studies through their ability to differentiate into a wide variety of cell types, including neurons, pancreatic beta cells, cardiomyocytes, and progenitor cells of the liver, lung and skin. The mechanisms controlling ES/iPS self-renewal and differentiation are influenced by a diverse set of growth factors, receptors, intracellular signaling molecules, and transcription factors. Cell fate determination often requires a tightly regulated temporal sequence of growth factor presentation and transcription factor expression. The factors depicted below are known to influence ES/iPS pluripotency, proliferation, and lineage commitment. ES/iPS cells and their differentiated progeny can be identified by the expression of a unique combination of cell surface markers and transcription factors. Unique identifiers for each cell can be viewed by clicking on that cell-type within the lineage pathway.
To learn more, please visit our Embryonic & Induced Pluripotent Stem Cell Products Research Area.