Chemical Name: (3R,4aR,5S,6S,6aS,10S,10aR,10bS)-5-(Acetyloxy)-3-ethenyldodecahydro-6,10,10b-trihydroxy-3,4a,7,7,10a-pentamethyl-1H-naphtho[2,1-b]pyran-1-one
Biological ActivityForskolin, or coleonol, is a cell-permeable, potent, reversible and rapid activator of adenylyl cyclase, an enzyme that converts ATP to cAMP and pyrophosphate (EC50 = 0.5 μM). In combination with 5 other compounds, forskolin enables chemical reprogramming of mouse embryonic fibroblasts to pluripotent stem cells, without genetic factors: Valproic acid, sodium salt (Cat. No. 2815), RepSox (Cat. No. 3742), Tranylcypromine hydrochloride (Cat. No. 3852), CHIR 99021 (Cat. No. 4423) and 3-Deazaneplanocin A hydrochloride (Cat. No. 4703). In combination with IBMX (Cat. No. 2845), forskolin induces neural differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells by downregulating neuron restrictive silencer factor. In a rat model of Huntington's disease-like neurodegeneration, forskolin also exhibits neuroprotective effects. Hypotensive and vasodilatory agent.
Water-soluble analog, NKH 477 (Cat. No. 1603), and Forskolin synthesized to Ancillary Material Grade also available.
For more information about how Forskolin may be used, see our protocol: Transdifferentiating Fibroblasts into Neurons.
The technical data provided above is for guidance only.
For batch specific data refer to the Certificate of Analysis.
Tocris products are intended for laboratory research use only, unless stated otherwise.
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cAMP induces neuronal differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells via activation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase/MAPK.
Kim et al.
Interactions of forskolin and adenylate cyclase.
Awad et al.
Forskolin: a specific stimulator of adenylyl cyclase or a diterpene with multiple sites of action?
Laurenza et al.
Structure-activity relationships for activation of adenylate cyclase by the diterpene forskolin and its derivatives.
Seamon et al.
Pluripotent stem cells induced from mouse somatic cells by small-molecule compounds.
Hou et al.
SnapShot: Growing Organoids from Stem Cells.
Sato et al.
Forskolin carbamates: binding and activation studies with type I adenylyl cyclase.
Robbins et al.
Citations for Forskolin
The citations listed below are publications that use Tocris products. Selected citations for Forskolin include:
86 Citations: Showing 1 - 10
Snake venom gland organoids
Authors: Post Et al.
Esomeprazole Increases Airway Surface Liquid pH in Primary Cystic Fibrosis Epithelial Cells.
Authors: Delpiano Et al.
Front Pharmacol 2019;9:1462
Phosphorylation-dependent modulation of CFTR macromolecular signalling complex activity by cigarette smoke condensate in airway epithelia.
Authors: Schnúr Et al.
Sci Rep 2019;9:12706
GPCR signaling inhibits mTORC1 via PKA phosphorylation of Raptor.
Authors: Jewell Et al.
Dual-Mode FRET and BRET Sensors for Detecting cAMP Dynamics.
Authors: French Et al.
ACS Omega 2019;4:15504
Luciferase Reporter Mice for In Vivo Monitoring and Ex Vivo Assessment of Hypothalamic Signaling of Socs3 Expression.
Authors: Cordonier Et al.
J Endocr Soc 2019;3:1246
Long-term expanding human airway organoids for disease modeling.
Authors: Sachs Et al.
EMBO J 2019;38
NMDAR-Activated PP1 Dephosphorylates GluN2B to Modulate NMDAR Synaptic Content.
Authors: Chiu Et al.
Cell Rep 2019;28:332
Establishment of Patient-Derived Organoids and Drug Screening for Biliary Tract Carcinoma.
Authors: Saito Et al.
Cell Rep 2019;27:1265
Linking NMDA Receptor Synaptic Retention to Synaptic Plasticity and Cognition.
Authors: Franchini Et al.
Huntington's Disease Patient-Derived Astrocytes Display Electrophysiological Impairments and Reduced Neuronal Support.
Authors: Garcia Et al.
Front Neurosci 2019;13:669
Single cell analysis of human foetal liver captures the transcriptional profile of hepatobiliary hybrid progenitors.
Authors: Segal Et al.
Nat Commun 2019;10:3350
DA D2 receptor-mediated neuroprotection in a G2019S Lrrk2 genetic model of Parkinson�s disease.
Authors: Tozzi Et al.
Cell Death Dis 2018;9(2):204
Downregulation of p53 drives autophagy during human trophoblast differentiation.
Authors: Gauster Et al.
Cell Mol Life Sci 2018;75:1839
A Cell/Cilia Cycle Biosensor for Single-Cell Kinetics Reveals Persistence of Cilia after G1/S Transition Is a General Property in Cells and Mice.
Authors: Ford Et al.
Dev Cell 2018;47:509
MBD1 Contributes to the Genesis of Acute Pain and Neuropathic Pain by Epigenetic Silencing of Oprm1 and Kcna2 Genes in Primary Sensory Neurons.
Authors: Mo Et al.
J Neurosci 2018;38:9883
CRISPR-based chromatin remodeling of the endogenous Oct4 or Sox2 locus enables reprogramming to pluripotency.
Authors: Liu Et al.
Cell Stem Cell. 2018;22:252
Mutant GNAS drives pancreatic tumourigenesis by inducing PKA-mediated SIK suppression and reprogramming lipid metabolism.
Authors: Patra Et al.
Nat Cell Biol 2018;20:811
Specific autophagy and ESCRT components participate in the unconventional secretion of CFTR.
Authors: Noh Et al.
Activation of Serotonin 5-HT7 Receptors Modulates Hippocampal Synaptic Plasticity by Stimulation of Adenylate Cyclases and Rescues Learning and Behavior in a Mouse Model of Fragile X Syndrome.
Authors: Costa Et al.
Front Mol Neurosci 2018;11:353
Phosphatases control PKA-dependent functional microdomains at the outer mitochondrial membrane.
Authors: Burdyga Et al.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2018;115(28):E6497
Follicular Stimulating Hormone Accelerates Atherogenesis by Increasing Endothelial VCAM-1 Expression.
Authors: Li Et al.
Multiplexing PKA and ERK12 kinases FRET biosensors in living cells using single excitation wavelength dual colour FLIM.
Authors: Demeautis Et al.
Sci Rep 2017;7:41026
β2-adrenoreceptor Inverse Agonist Down-regulates Muscarine Cholinergic Subtype-3 Receptor and Its Downstream Signal Pathways in Airway Smooth Muscle Cells in vitro.
Scientific Reports 2017;7:39905
A Complementary Scale of Biased Agonism for Agonists with Differing Maximal Responses.
Authors: Burgueño Et al.
Sci Rep 2017;7:15389
Prostaglandin E2-mediated adenosinergic effects on CD14+ cells: Self-amplifying immunosuppression in cancer.
Authors: Al-Taei Et al.
Derivation of Pluripotent Stem Cells with In Vivo Embryonic and Extraembryonic Potency.
Authors: Yang Et al.
Activation of P2X7 and P2Y11 purinergic receptors inhibits migration and normalizes tumor-derived endothelial cells via cAMP signaling
Authors: Avanzato Et al.
Scientific Reports 2016;6:32602
ApoE4 expression accelerates hippocampus-dependent cognitive deficits by enhancing Aβ impairment of Ins signaling in an Alzheimer's disease mouse model.
Authors: Chan Et al.
Compartmentalized PDE4A5 Signaling Impairs Hippocampal Synaptic Plasticity and Long-Term Memory.
Authors: Havekes Et al.
J Neurosci 2016;36:8936
Activation of PKA leads to mesenchymal-to-epithelial transition and loss of tumor-initiating ability.
Authors: Pattabiraman Et al.
A siRNA screen reveals the prosurvival effect of protein kinase A activation in conditions of unresolved endoplasmic reticulum stress.
Authors: Aguileta Et al.
Cell Death Differ 2016;23:1670
New functional activity of aripipr. revealed: Robust antagonism of D2 DA receptor-stimulated Gβγ signaling.
Authors: Brust Et al.
Cell Rep 2015;93:85
Cyclic Adenosine 3',5'-Monophosphate Elevation and Biological Signaling through a Secr. Family Gs-Coupled G Protein-Coupled Receptor Are Restricted to a Single Adenylate Cyclase Isoform.
Authors: Emery Et al.
J Cell Mol Med 2015;87:928
The NLRP3 inflammasome is activated by nanoparticles through ATP, ADP and adenosine.
Authors: Baron Et al.
Sci Rep 2015;6:e1629
Optodynamic simulation of β-adrenergic receptor signalling.
Authors: Siuda Et al.
The short-chain fatty acid receptor GPR43 is transcriptionally regulated by XBP1 in human monocytes.
Authors: Ang Et al.
Ann Clin Transl Neurol 2015;5:8134
Increased biogenesis of glucagon-containing secretory granules and glucagon secretion in BIG3-knockout mice.
Authors: Li Et al.
Mol Pharmacol 2015;4:246
The cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator is an extracellular chloride sensor.
Authors: Broadbent Et al.
Sci Rep 2015;467:1783
Retroactive modulation of spike timing-dependent plasticity by DA.
Authors: Brzosko Et al.
Preclinical evaluation of SMM-189, a cannabinoid receptor 2-specific inverse agonist.
Authors: Presley Et al.
Biochem Pharmacol 2015;3:e00159
Different patterns of electrical activity lead to long-term potentiation by activating different intracellular pathways.
Authors: Zhu Et al.
Pharmacol Res Perspect 2015;35:621
Exchange Protein Directly Activated by cAMP (EPAC) Regulates Neuronal Polarization through Rap1B.
Authors: Muñoz-Llancao Et al.
Biochim Biophys Acta 2015;35:11315
Somatostatin and Ins mediate glucose-inhibited glucagon secretion in the pancreatic α-cell by lowering cAMP.
Authors: Elliott Et al.
Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab 2015;308:E130
A second trigeminal CGRP receptor: function and expression of the AMY1 receptor.
Authors: Walker Et al.
Nat Commun 2015;2:595
Compartmentalized accumulation of cAMP near complexes of multidrug resistance protein 4 (MRP4) and cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) contributes to drug-induced diarrhea.
Authors: Moon Et al.
J Biol Chem 2015;290:11246
Selective Effects of PDE10A Inhibitors on Striatopallidal Neurons Require Phosphatase Inhibition by DARPP-32(1,2,3).
Authors: Polito Et al.
J Neurosci 2015;2
Prostaglandin E2 promotes MYCN non-amplified neuroblastoma cell survival via β-catenin stabilization.
Authors: Jansen Et al.
Stem Cell Reports 2015;19:210
Phosphorylation of ezrin on Thr567 is required for the synergistic activation of cell spreading by EPAC1 and protein kinase A in HEK293T cells.
Authors: Parnell Et al.
Mol Metab 2015;1853:1749
Morphine-induced internalization of the L83I mutant of the rat μ-opioid receptor.
Authors: Cooke Et al.
Cell Death Dis 2015;172:593
A Combined Optogenetic-Knockdown Strategy Reveals a Major Role of Tomosyn in Mossy Fiber Synaptic Plasticity.
Authors: Ben-Simon Et al.
Pflugers Arch 2015;12:396
Inversion of Sonic hedgehog action on its canonical pathway by electrical activity.
Authors: Belgacem and Borodinsky
Eur J Neurosci 2015;112:4140
Prostaglandin E2 promotes features of replicative senescence in chronically activated human CD8+ T cells.
Authors: Chou Et al.
PLoS One 2014;9:e99432
GABAB receptor phosphorylation regulates KCTD12-induced K+ current desensitization.
Authors: Adelfinger Et al.
Biochem Pharmacol 2014;91:369
PKA catalytic subunit compartmentation regulates contractile and hypertrophic responses to β-adrenergic signaling.
Authors: Yang Et al.
J Biol Chem 2014;66:83
PCP4: a regulator of aldosterone synthesis in human adrenocortical tissues.
Authors: Felizola Et al.
Derivation and expansion of PAX7-positive muscle progenitors from human and mouse embryonic stem cells.
Authors: Shelton Et al.
Br J Pharmacol 2014;3:516
A method to identify and isolate pluripotent human stem cells and mouse epiblast stem cells using lipid body-associated retinyl ester fluorescence.
Authors: Muthusamy Et al.
Stem Cell Reports 2014;3:169
Naringenin inhibits the growth of Dictyostelium and MDCK-derived cysts in a TRPP2 (polycystin-2)-dependent manner.
Authors: Waheed Et al.
Br J Pharmacol 2014;171:2659
The spatio-temporal dynamics of PKA activity profile during mitosis and its correlation to chromosome segregation.
Authors: Vandame Et al.
Cell Cycle 2014;13:3232
cAMP level modulates scleral collagen remodeling, a critical step in the development of myopia.
Authors: Tao Et al.
Br J Pharmacol 2013;8:e71441
Prostaglandin E receptor EP1 forms a complex with DA D1 receptor and directs D1-induced cAMP production to adenylyl cyclase 7 through mobilizing G(βγ) subunits in human embryonic kidney 293T cells.
Authors: Ehrlich Et al.
Mol Pharmacol 2013;84:476
Proteasomal degradation of eukaryotic elongation factor-2 kinase (EF2K) is regulated by cAMP-PKA signaling and the SCFβTRCP ubiquitin E3 ligase.
Authors: Wiseman Et al.
J Biol Chem 2013;288:17803
Cyclic AMP stimulates neurite outgrowth of lamprey reticulospinal neurons without substantially altering their biophysical properties.
Authors: Pale Et al.
Age-dependent regulation of synaptic connections by DA D2 receptors.
Authors: Jia Et al.
Nat Neurosci 2013;16:1627
Melanocortin 4 receptors reciprocally regulate sympathetic and parasympathetic preganglionic neurons.
Authors: Sohn Et al.
J Mol Endocrinol 2013;152:612
Orally active adenosine A(1) receptor agonists with antinociceptive effects in mice.
Authors: Korboukh Et al.
J Med Chem 2012;55:6467
The calcium-sensing receptor regulates the NLRP3 inflammasome through Ca2+ and cAMP.
Authors: Lee Et al.
DArgic modulation of ganglion-cell photoreceptors in rat.
Authors: Hook Et al.
J Neurosci 2012;35:507
Opposing roles of synaptic and extrasynaptic NMDA receptor signaling in cocultured striatal and cortical neurons.
Authors: Kaufman Et al.
J Neurosci 2012;32:3992
AM630 behaves as a protean ligand at the human cannabinoid CB2 receptor.
Authors: Bolognini Et al.
Br J Pharmacol 2012;165:2561
A new cannabinoid CB2 receptor agonist HU-910 attenuates oxidative stress, inflammation and cell death associated with hepatic ischaemia/reperfusion injury.
Authors: Horváth Et al.
J Neurosci 2012;165:2462
Heterogeneous reallocation of presynaptic efficacy in recurrent excitatory circuits adapting to inactivity.
Authors: Mitra Et al.
Nat Neurosci 2012;15:250
Dynamic mass redistribution assays decode surface influence on signaling of endogenous purinergic P2Y receptors.
Authors: Tran Et al.
Assay Drug Dev Technol 2012;10:37
Nitric oxide inhibits highly selective sodium channels and the Na+/K+-ATPase in H441 cells.
Authors: Althaus Et al.
Am J Respir Cell Mol Biol 2011;44:53
cAMP response element-binding protein is a primary hub of activity-driven neuronal gene expression.
Authors: Benito Et al.
J Neurosci 2011;31:18237
Dual Phosphorylation of suppressor of fused (Sufu) by PKA and GSK3beta regulates its stability and localization in the primary cilium.
Authors: Chen Et al.
J Biol Chem 2011;286:13502
Mouse embryonic retina delivers information controlling cortical neurogenesis.
Authors: Bonetti and Surace
J Mol Cell Cardiol 2010;5:e15211
A putative 'pre-nervous' endocannabinoid system in early echinoderm development.
Authors: Buznikov Et al.
Dev Neurosci 2010;32:1
DA-dependent tuning of striatal inhibitory synaptogenesis.
Authors: Goffin Et al.
PLoS One 2010;30:2935
Neuroligin 1 is dynamically exchanged at postsynaptic sites.
Authors: Schapitz Et al.
J Neurosci 2010;30:12733
Adaptation of NS cells growth and differentiation to high-throughput screening-compatible plates.
Authors: Garavaglia Et al.
BMC Neurosci 2010;11:7
Metabotropic glutamate receptor 5 activation inhibits microglial associated inflammation and neurotoxicity.
Authors: Byrnes Et al.
J Clin Invest 2009;57:550
PKA and Epac cooperate to augment bradykinin-induced interleukin-8 release from human airway smooth muscle cells.
Authors: Roscioni Et al.
Respir Res 2009;10:88
Prolonged wakefulness induces experience-dependent synaptic plasticity in mouse hypocretin/orexin neurons.
Authors: Rao Et al.
PLoS One 2007;117:4022
Identification of a novel human eicosanoid receptor coupled to G(i/o).
Authors: Hosoi Et al.
J Biol Chem 2002;277:31459
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