Catalog Number: 1254
Chemical Name: trans-4-[(1R)-1-Aminoethyl]-N-4-pyridinylcyclohexanecarboxamide dihydrochloride
Biological Activity
Selective p160ROCK inhibitor (Ki values are 0.14, 26, 25 and > 250 μM for p160ROCK, PKC, PKA and MLCK respectively). Also inhibits PRK2 (IC50 = 600 nM). Smooth muscle relaxant and orally active in vivo. Increases survival rate of human embryonic stem (hES) cells and iPSC-BMECs undergoing cryopreservation. Also optimizes naïve human pluripotent stem cell growth and viability following naïve cell derivation from primed ESCs and iPSCs using naïve human stem cell medium (NHSM).
Technical Data
  • M.Wt:
    320.26
  • Formula:
    C14H21N3O.2HCl
  • Solubility:
    Soluble to 100 mM in water
  • Purity:
    >98%
  • Storage:
    Desiccate at RT
  • CAS No:
    129830-38-2
The technical data provided above is for guidance only. For batch specific data refer to the Certificate of Analysis. All Tocris products are intended for laboratory research use only.
Citations:

The citations listed below are publications that use Tocris products. Selected citations for Y-27632 dihydrochloride include:

116 Citations: Showing 1 - 10
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  1. Concerted regulation of retinal pigment epithelium basement membrane and barrier function by angiocrine factors.
    Authors: Benedicto
    Nat Commun 2017;8:15374
  2. A modular platform for differentiation of human PSCs into all major ectodermal lineages.
    Authors: Tchieu Et al.
    Cell Stem Cell. 2017;31:399
  3. Differentiation of human pluripotent stem cells into functional lung alveolar epithelial cells.
    Authors: Kotton Et al.
    Cell Stem Cell. 2017;21:472
  4. In Vivo Human Somitogenesis Guides Somite Development from hPSCs.
    Authors: Xi
    Cell Rep 2017;18(6):1573
  5. Mesoderm-specific Stat3 deletion affects expression of Sox9 yielding Sox9-dependent phenotypes.
    Authors: Hall
    PLoS Genet 2017;13(2):e1006610
  6. The novel cannabinoid receptor GPR55 mediates anxiolytic-like effects in the medial orbital cortex of mice with acute stress.
    Authors: Shi
    Mol Brain 2017;10(1):38
  7. Wnt and Neuregulin1/ErbB signalling extends 3D culture of hormone responsive mammary organoids
    Authors: Jardé Et al.
    Nature Communications 2016;7:13207
  8. Genetically engineering self-organization of human pluripotent stem cells into a liver bud-like tissue using Gata6.
    Authors: Guye Et al.
    Sci Rep 2016;7:10243
  9. Nogo-A controls structural plasticity at dendritic spines by rapidly modulating actin dynamics.
    Authors: Kellner Et al.
    Hippocampus 2016;6:816
  10. Dopaminergic neurons differentiating from LRRK2 G2019S induced pluripotent stem cells show early neuritic branching defects.
    Authors: Borgs Et al.
    Scientific Reports 2016;6:33377
  11. Tumor-induced remote ECM network orientation steers angiogenesis.
    Authors: Balcioglu Et al.
    Development 2016;6:22580
  12. Dual SMAD Signaling Inhibition Enables Long-Term Expansion of Diverse Epithelial Basal Cells
    Authors: Mou Et al.
    Cell: Stem Cell 2016;19:217
  13. Human Enteroids as a Model of Upper Small Intestinal Ion Transport Physiology and Pathophysiology.
    Authors: Foulke-Abel Et al.
    Nat Commun 2016;150:638
  14. Generating high-purity cardiac and endothelial derivatives from patterned mesoderm using humanpluripotent stem cells.
    Authors: Palpant Et al.
    Nature Protocols 2016;12:15
  15. Generation of human muscle fibers and satellite-like cells from human pluripotent stem cells in vitro.
    Authors: Chal Et al.
    Nat.Protoc. 2016;11:1833
  16. Comparison of Human Embryonic Stem Cell-Derived Cardiomyocytes, Cardiovascular Progenitors, and Bone Marrow Mononuclear Cells for Cardiac Repair.
    Authors: Fernandes Et al.
    Bone Res 2015;NULL
  17. Generation of functional hippocampal neurons from self-organizing human embryonic stem cell-derived dorsomedial telencephalic tissue.
    Authors: Sakaguchi Et al.
    Mol Vis 2015;6:8896
  18. A Rac/Cdc42 exchange factor complex promotes formation of lateral filopodia and blood vessel lumen morphogenesis.
    Authors: Abraham Et al.
    Stem Cell Reports 2015;6:7286
  19. Analysing human neural stem cell ontogeny by consecutive isolation of Notch active neural progenitors.
    Authors: Edri Et al.
    Nat Commun 2015;6:6500
  20. Substrate stress relaxation regulates cell spreading.
    Authors: Chaudhuri Et al.
    Brain 2015;6:6364
  21. A therapy-grade protocol for differentiation of pluripotent stem cells into mesenchymal stem cells using platelet lysate as supplement.
    Authors: Luzzani Et al.
    Int J Cancer 2015;6:6
  22. Cloning-free CRISPR.
    Authors: Arbab Et al.
    Cell 2015;5:908
  23. Machine learning plus optical flow: a simple and sensitive method to detect cardioactive drugs.
    Authors: Lee Et al.
    Sci Rep 2015;5:11817
  24. Dynamic tensile forces drive collective cell migration through three-dimensional extracellular matrices.
    Authors: Gjorevski Et al.
    Sci Rep 2015;5:11458
  25. A panel of induced pluripotent stem cells from chimpanzees: a resource for comparative functional genomics.
    Authors: Romero Et al.
    Elife 2015;4:e07103
  26. Defined conditions for the isolation and expansion of basal prostate progenitor cells of mouse and human origin.
    Authors: Höfner Et al.
    PLoS One 2015;4:503
  27. Large-scale hematopoietic differentiation of human induced pluripotent stem cells provides granulocytes or macrophages for cell replacement therapies.
    Authors: Lachmann Et al.
    Nat Commun 2015;4:282
  28. Rho/Rock signal transduction pathway is required for MSC tenogenic differentiation.
    Authors: Maharam Et al.
    Stem Cell Res Ther 2015;3:15015
  29. Nephron organoids derived from human pluripotent stem cells model kidney development and injury.
    Authors: Morizane Et al.
    Nat Commun 2015;33:1193
  30. Odontogenic Ameloblast-associated Protein (ODAM) Mediates Junctional Epithelium Attachment to Teeth via Integrin-ODAM-Rho Guanine Nucleotide Exchange Factor 5 (ARHGEF5)-RhoA Signaling.
    Authors: Lee Et al.
    Toxicol Sci 2015;290:14740
  31. Phenotypes of trypsin- and collagenase-prepared bovine corneal endothelial cells in the presence of a selective Rho kinase inhibitor, Y-27632.
    Authors: Su Et al.
    PLoS Comput Biol 2015;21:633
  32. RhoA GTPase-induced ocular hypertension in a rodent model is associated with increased fibrogenic activity in the trabecular meshwork.
    Authors: Pattabiraman Et al.
    Autophagy 2015;185:496
  33. Transgenic plants as low-cost platform for chemotherapeutic drugs screening.
    Authors: Vergara Et al.
    J Biol Chem 2015;16:2174
  34. Human embryonic stem cell-derived oligodendrocyte progenitors remyelinate the brain and rescue behavioral deficits following radiation.
    Authors: Piao Et al.
    Cell Stem Cell 2015;16:198
  35. Hypoxia and loss of PHD2 inactivate stromal fibroblasts to decrease tumour stiffness and metastasis.
    Authors: Madsen Et al.
    EMBO Rep 2015;16:1394
  36. Cortical contractility triggers a stochastic switch to fast amoeboid cell motility.
    Authors: Ruprecht Et al.
    Int J Mol Sci 2015;160:673
  37. Comprehensive analysis of microRNA expression in regionalized human neural progenitor cells reveals microRNA-10 as a caudalizing factor.
    Authors: Jönsson Et al.
    Int J Nanomedicine 2015;142:3166
  38. Duration of culture and sonic hedgehog signaling differentially specify PV versus SST cortical interneuron fates from embryonic stem cells.
    Authors: Tyson Et al.
    Stem Cells 2015;142:1267
  39. Early maturation and distinct tau pathology in induced pluripotent stem cell-derived neurons from patients with MAPT mutations.
    Authors: Iovino Et al.
    Development 2015;138:3345
  40. SDF-1α stiffens myeloma bone marrow mesenchymal stromal cells through the activation of RhoA-ROCK-Myosin II.
    Authors: Choi Et al.
    Stem Cell Reports 2015;136:E219
  41. The integrin expression profile modulates orientation and dynamics of force transmission at cell-matrix adhesions.
    Authors: Balcioglu Et al.
    Nat Biotechnol 2015;128:1316
  42. Quantitative Live Imaging of Human Embryonic Stem Cell Derived Neural Rosettes Reveals Structure-Function Dynamics Coupled to Cortical Development.
    Authors: Ziv Et al.
    Stem Cell Reports 2015;11:e1004453
  43. Variations in Glycogen Synthesis in Human Pluripotent Stem Cells with Altered Pluripotent States.
    Authors: Chen Et al.
    PLoS One 2015;10:e0142554
  44. The Viral Mimetic Polyinosinic:Polycytidylic Acid Alters the Growth Characteristics of Small Intestinal and Colonic Crypt Cultures.
    Authors: Davies Et al.
    PLoS One 2015;10:e0138531
  45. Simvastatin Increases Fibulin-2 Expression in Human Coronary Artery Smooth Muscle Cells via RhoA/Rho-Kinase Signaling Pathway Inhibition.
    Authors: Serra Et al.
    PLoS One 2015;10:e0133875
  46. Optimization of Invasion-Specific Effects of Betulin Derivatives on Prostate Cancer Cells through Lead Development.
    Authors: Härmä Et al.
    Stem Cell Reports 2015;10:e0126111
  47. Simvastatin enhances Rho/actin/cell rigidity pathway contributing to mesenchymal stem cells' osteogenic differentiation.
    Authors: Tai Et al.
    Nat Commun 2015;10:5881
  48. Molecular beacon-enabled purification of living cells by targeting cell type-specific mRNAs.
    Authors: Wile Et al.
    Nat Protoc 2014;9:2411
  49. Development of a primary mouse intestinal epithelial cell monolayer culture system to evaluate factors that modulate IgA transcytosis.
    Authors: Moon Et al.
    Mucosal Immunol 2014;7:818
  50. TRPA1 is essential for the vascular response to environmental cold exposure.
    Authors: Aubdool Et al.
    Korean J Physiol Pharmacol 2014;5:5732
  51. Diverse matrix metalloproteinase functions regulate cancer amoeboid migration.
    Authors: Orgaz Et al.
    Nat Commun 2014;5:4255
  52. Prospective identification of functionally distinct stem cells and neurosphere-initiating cells in adult mouse forebrain.
    Authors: Mich Et al.
    Elife 2014;3:e02669
  53. Derivation and expansion of PAX7-positive muscle progenitors from human and mouse embryonic stem cells.
    Authors: Shelton Et al.
    Stem Cell Reports 2014;3:516
  54. Efficient generation of lung and airway epithelial cells from human pluripotent stem cells.
    Authors: Huang Et al.
    Nat Biotechnol 2014;32:84
  55. Cryopreservation of human pluripotent stem cells in defined medium.
    Authors: Liu and Chen
    Curr Protoc Stem Cell Biol 2014;31:1C.17.1
  56. Generation of GFP Reporter Human Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells Using AAVS1 Safe Harbor Transcription Activator-Like Effector Nuclease.
    Authors: Luo Et al.
    Curr Protoc Stem Cell Biol 2014;29:5A.7.1
  57. Role of Rho GDP dissociation inhibitor α in control of epithelial sodium channel (ENaC)-mediated sodium reabsorption.
    Authors: Pavlov Et al.
    J Biol Chem 2014;289:28651
  58. GABAergic terminals are a source of galanin to modulate cholinergic neuron development in the neonatal forebrain.
    Authors: Keimpema Et al.
    Cereb Cortex 2014;24:3277
  59. Competition between human cells by entosis.
    Authors: Sun Et al.
    Cell Res 2014;24:1299
  60. Induction of entosis by epithelial cadherin expression.
    Authors: Sun Et al.
    Cell Res 2014;24:1288
  61. Transforming growth factor β-induced superficial zone protein accumulation in the surface zone of articular cartilage is dependent on the cytoskeleton.
    Authors: McNary Et al.
    Tissue Eng Part A 2014;20:921
  62. An in vivo role for Rho kinase activation in the tumour vascular disrupting activity of combretastatin A-4 3-O-phosphate.
    Authors: Williams Et al.
    Br J Pharmacol 2014;171:4902
  63. A high-throughput screen for teratogens using human pluripotent stem cells.
    Authors: Kameoka Et al.
    J Biomol Screen 2014;137:76
  64. Signals from the surface modulate differentiation of human pluripotent stem cells through glycosaminoglycans and integrins.
    Authors: Wrighton Et al.
    Circ Res 2014;111:18126
  65. The role of mechanical force and ROS in integrin-dependent signals.
    Authors: Zeller Et al.
    PLoS One 2013;8:e64897
  66. Fluid-phase pinocytosis of native low density lipoprotein promotes murine M-CSF differentiated macrophage foam cell formation.
    Authors: Barthwal Et al.
    PLoS One 2013;8:e58054
  67. Generating regionalized neuronal cells from pluripotency, a step-by-step protocol.
    Authors: Kirkeby Et al.
    Front Cell Neurosci 2013;6:64
  68. Activation of β 1 but not β 3 integrin increases cell traction forces.
    Authors: Lin Et al.
    J Neurosci 2013;587:763
  69. Generation of integration-free and region-specific neural progenitors from primate fibroblasts.
    Authors: Lu Et al.
    Curr Biol 2013;3:1580
  70. PI3K regulates branch initiation and extension of cultured mammary epithelia via Akt and Rac1 respectively.
    Authors: Zhu and Nelson
    Cell 2013;379:235
  71. Calcium release-dependent actin flow in the leading process mediates axophilic migration.
    Authors: Hutchins Et al.
    J Cell Biochem 2013;33:11361
  72. mTOR regulates phagosome and entotic vacuole fission.
    Authors: Krajcovic Et al.
    Mol Biol Cell 2013;24:3736
  73. Sox10-MCS5 enhancer dynamically tracks human oligodendrocyte progenitor fate.
    Authors: Pol Et al.
    Stem Cell Res 2013;247:694
  74. A phenotypic screening assay for modulators of huntingtin-induced transcriptional dysregulation.
    Authors: Lazzeroni Et al.
    Exp Neurol 2013;18:984
  75. Inhibition of Rho-kinase improves erectile function, increases nitric oxide signaling and decreases penile apoptosis in a rat model of cavernous nerve injury.
    Authors: Hannan Et al.
    Am J Physiol Lung Cell Mol Physiol 2013;189:1155
  76. Mechanotransduction and YAP-dependent matrix remodelling is required for the generation and maintenance of cancer-associated fibroblasts.
    Authors: Calvo Et al.
    Nat Cell Biol 2013;15:637
  77. Stepwise, non-adherent differentiation of human pluripotent stem cells to generate basal forebrain cholinergic neurons via hedgehog signaling.
    Authors: Crompton Et al.
    Nat Cell Biol 2013;11:1206
  78. Interleukin-6 and oncostatin-M synergize with the PI3K/AKT pathway to promote aggressive prostate malignancy in mouse and human tissues.
    Authors: Smith Et al.
    Mol Cancer Res 2013;11:1159
  79. ZFX controls the self-renewal of human embryonic stem cells.
    Authors: Harel Et al.
    PLoS One 2012;7:e42302
  80. Passaging and colony expansion of human pluripotent stem cells by enzyme-free dissociation in chemically defined culture conditions.
    Authors: Beers Et al.
    Nat Protoc 2012;7:2029
  81. DMH1, a highly selective small molecule BMP inhibitor promotes neurogenesis of hiPSCs: comparison of PAX6 and SOX1 expression during neural induction.
    Authors: Neely Et al.
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2012;3:482
  82. Intra-axonal translation of RhoA promotes axon growth inhibition by CSPG.
    Authors: Walker Et al.
    J Cell Sci 2012;32:14442
  83. A temporal chromatin signature in human embryonic stem cells identifies regulators of cardiac development.
    Authors: Paige Et al.
    Cell 2012;151:221
  84. Slug and Sox9 cooperatively determine the mammary stem cell state.
    Authors: Guo Et al.
    J Cell Sci 2012;148:1015
  85. Synthetic lethal screening with small-molecule inhibitors provides a pathway to rational combination therapies for melanoma.
    Authors: Roller Et al.
    Mol Cancer Ther 2012;11:2505
  86. RhoJ/TCL regulates endothelial motility and tube formation and modulates actomyosin contractility and focal adhesion numbers.
    Authors: Kaur Et al.
    Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol 2011;31:657
  87. Cell wound repair in Drosophila occurs through three distinct phases of membrane and cytoskeletal remodeling.
    Authors: Abreu-Blanco Et al.
    J Cell Biol 2011;193:455
  88. The Relaxing Effect of α-Defensin 1 on the Adrenergic Responses of Rat Bladder.
    Authors: Lee Et al.
    Dev Biol 2011;15:143
  89. Wnt signaling specifies and patterns intestinal endoderm.
    Authors: Sherwood Et al.
    Mech Dev 2011;128:387
  90. An association between NUAK2 and MRIP reveals a novel mechanism for regulation of actin stress fibers.
    Authors: Vallenius Et al.
    Integr Biol (Camb) 2011;124:384
  91. Statins inhibit angiotensin II/Smad pathway and related vascular fibrosis, by a TGF-β-independent process.
    Authors: Díez Et al.
    PLoS One 2010;5:e14145
  92. Endogenous patterns of mechanical stress are required for branching morphogenesis.
    Authors: Gjorevski and Nelson
    Stroke 2010;2:424
  93. Cortical actin dynamics facilitate early-stage centrosome separation.
    Authors: Cao Et al.
    J Pharmacol Exp Ther 2010;20:770
  94. Tissue geometry patterns epithelial-mesenchymal transition via intercellular mechanotransduction.
    Authors: Gomez Et al.
    ACS Chem Neurosci 2010;110:44
  95. PDGF signaling is required for epicardial function and blood vessel formation in regenerating zebrafish hearts.
    Authors: Kim Et al.
    FEBS Lett 2010;107:17206
  96. The Rho-A/Rho-kinase pathway is up-regulated but remains inhibited by cyclic guanosine monophosphate-dependent mechanisms during endotoxemia in small mesenteric arteries.
    Authors: Silva-Santos Et al.
    J Biol Chem 2009;37:1716
  97. Cell polarity triggered by cell-cell adhesion via E-cadherin.
    Authors: Desai Et al.
    Br J Pharmacol 2009;122:905
  98. Localized and reversible TGFβ signalling switches breast cancer cells from cohesive to single cell motility.
    Authors: Giampieri Et al.
    Nat Commun 2009;11:1287
  99. Essential role of TGF-beta/Smad pathway on statin dependent vascular smooth muscle cell regulation.
    Authors: Rodríguez-Vita Et al.
    PLoS One 2008;3:e3959
  100. Emergence of patterned stem cell differentiation within multicellular structures.
    Authors: Ruiz and Chen
    J Cell Sci 2008;26:2921
  101. Antiepileptic effects of two Rho-kinase inhibitors, Y-27632 and fasudil, in mice.
    Authors: Inan and Büyükafşar
    Am J Pathol 2008;155:44
  102. Quantifying myosin light chain phosphorylation in single adherent cells with automated fluorescence microscopy.
    Authors: Bhadriraju Et al.
    J Biol Chem 2007;8:43
  103. Insulin induces airway smooth muscle contraction.
    Authors: Schaafsma Et al.
    Cell Rep 2007;150:136
  104. Fn14 is upregulated in cytokine-stimulated vascular smooth muscle cells and is expressed in human carotid atherosclerotic plaques: modulation by atorvastatin.
    Authors: Muñoz-García Et al.
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2006;37:2044
  105. Cingulin regulates claudin-2 expression and cell proliferation through the small GTPase RhoA.
    Authors: Guillemot and Citi
    Mol Biol Cell 2006;17:3569
  106. ROCK- and myosin-dependent matrix deformation enables protease-independent tumor-cell invasion in vivo.
    Authors: Wyckoff Et al.
    Curr Biol 2006;16:1515
  107. Endothelin-1, via ETA receptor and independently of transforming growth factor-β, increases the connective tissue growth factor in vascular smooth muscle cells.
    Authors: Rodríguez-Vita Et al.
    Am J Physiol Cell Physiol 2005;97:125
  108. CXCR4 chemokine receptor and integrin signaling co-operate in mediating adhesion and chemoresistance in small cell lung cancer (SCLC) cells.
    Authors: Hartmann Et al.
    Oncogene 2005;24:4462
  109. Signal transduction underlying carbachol-induced contraction of human urinary bladder.
    Authors: Schneider Et al.
    J Biol Chem 2004;309:1148
  110. The activity of the plexin-A1 receptor is regulated by Rac.
    Authors: Turner Et al.
    J Biol Chem 2004;279:33199
  111. Myosin phosphatase-Rho interacting protein. A new member of the myosin phosphatase complex that directly binds RhoA.
    Authors: Surks Et al.
    J Biol Chem 2003;278:51484
  112. Rho protein inactivation induced apoptosis of cultured human endothelial cells.
    Authors: Hippenstiel Et al.
    BMC Cell Biol 2002;283:L830
  113. Stiffness changes in cultured airway smooth muscle cells.
    Authors: An Et al.
    Gastroenterology 2002;283:C792
  114. Interaction of cofilin with triose-phosphate isomerase contributes glycolytic fuel for Na,K-ATPase via Rho-mediated signaling pathway.
    Authors: Jung Et al.
    Br J Pharmacol 2002;277:48931
  115. Differential regulation of cell migration, actin stress fiber organization, and cell transformation by functional domains of Crk-associated substrate.
    Authors: Huang Et al.
    Crit Care Med 2002;277:27265
  116. Myelin-associated glycoprotein interacts with ganglioside GT1b. A mechanism for neurite outgrowth inhibition.
    Authors: Vinson Et al.
    J Urol 2001;276:20280
Expand to show all 116 Citations

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