Human CCL4/MIP-1 beta Antibody

Catalog # Availability Size / Price Qty
AB-271-NA
Chemotaxis Induced by CCL4/MIP‑1 beta  and Neutralization by Human CCL4/MIP‑1 beta  Antibody.
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Human CCL4/MIP-1 beta Antibody Summary

Species Reactivity
Human
Specificity
Detects human CCL4/MIP-1 beta in direct ELISAs and Western blots. In direct ELISAs, less than 1% cross-reactivity with recombinant human (rh) MIP-1 alpha, recombinant mouse (rm) CCL4/MIP-1 beta, rhMIP-gamma and rmMIP-1 gamma is observed.
Source
Polyclonal Goat IgG
Purification
Protein A or G purified
Immunogen
S. frugiperda insect ovarian cell line Sf 21-derived recombinant human CCL4/MIP-1 beta
Ala24-Asn92
Accession # P13236
Formulation
Lyophilized from a 0.2 μm filtered solution in PBS with Trehalose.
Endotoxin Level
<0.10 EU per 1 μg of the antibody by the LAL method.
Label
Unconjugated

Applications

Recommended Concentration
Sample
Western Blot
1 µg/mL
Recombinant Human CCL4/MIP‑1 beta (Catalog # 271-BME)
Neutralization
Measured by its ability to neutralize CCL4/MIP‑1 beta -induced chemotaxis in the BaF3 mouse pro‑B cell line transfected with human CCR5. The Neutralization Dose (ND50) is typically 1.5-9 µg/mL in the presence of 5 ng/mL Recombinant Human CCL4/MIP‑1 beta.

Please Note: Optimal dilutions should be determined by each laboratory for each application. General Protocols are available in the Technical Information section on our website.

Data Example

Neutralization Chemotaxis Induced by CCL4/MIP‑1 beta  and Neutralization by Human CCL4/MIP‑1 beta  Antibody. View Larger

Chemotaxis Induced by CCL4/MIP‑1 beta and Neutralization by Human CCL4/MIP‑1 beta Antibody.

Recombinant Human CCL4/MIP‑1 beta (Catalog # 271‑BME) chemoattracts the BaF3 mouse pro‑B cell line transfected with human CCR5 in a dose-dependent manner (orange line). The amount of cells that migrated through to the lower chemotaxis chamber was measured by Resazurin. Chemotaxis elicited by Recombinant Human CCL4/MIP‑1 beta (5 ng/mL) is neutralized (green line) by increasing concentrations of Human CCL4/MIP‑1 beta Polyclonal Antibody (Catalog # AB-271-NA). The ND50 is typically 1.5‑9 µg/mL.

 

 

Reconstitution Calculator

Reconstitution Calculator

The reconstitution calculator allows you to quickly calculate the volume of a reagent to reconstitute your vial. Simply enter the mass of reagent and the target concentration and the calculator will determine the rest.

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Preparation and Storage

Reconstitution
Reconstitute at 1 mg/mL in sterile PBS.
Reconstitution Buffer Available
Reconstitution Buffer 1 (PBS)
Catalog #
Availability
Size / Price
Qty
RB01
Shipping
The product is shipped at ambient temperature. Upon receipt, store it immediately at the temperature recommended below.
Stability & Storage
Use a manual defrost freezer and avoid repeated freeze-thaw cycles.
  • 12 months from date of receipt, -20 to -70 °C as supplied.
  • 1 month, 2 to 8 °C under sterile conditions after reconstitution.
  • 6 months, -20 to -70 °C under sterile conditions after reconstitution.

Background: CCL4/MIP-1 beta

CCL4, also known as macrophage inflammatory protein 1 beta (MIP-1 beta ) is a 7.8 kDa beta chemokine that is secreted at sites of inflammation by activated leukocytes, lymphocytes, vascular endothelial cells, and pulmonary smooth muscle cells (1, 2). CCL4 attracts a variety of immune cells to sites of microbial infection as well as to other pathologic inflammation such as allergic asthma and ischemic myocardium (3‑8). A CCL4 deficiency in mice promotes the development of autoantibodies, possibly as a result of compromised regulatory T cell recruitment (6). CCL4 is secreted from activated monocytes as a heterodimer with CCL3/MIP-1 alpha (9). The first two N-terminal amino acids can be cleaved from human CCL4 by CD26/DPPIV (10, 11). Both the full length and truncated forms exert biological activity through CCR5, and the truncated form additionally interacts with CCR1 and CCR2b (10). In humans, the ability of CCL4 to bind CCR5 inhibits the cellular entry of M-tropic HIV-1 which utilizes CCR5 as a coreceptor (2). Both forms of CCL4 block HIV-1 infection of T cells by inducing the downregulation of CCR5 (10). Mature human CCL4 shares 77% and 80% aa sequence identity with mouse and rat CCL4, respectively.

References
  1. Rot, A. and U.H. von Andrian (2004) Annu. Rev. Immunol. 22:891.
  2. Menten, P. et al. (2002) Cytokine Growth Factor Rev. 13:455.
  3. Sun, X. et al. (2006) Infec. Immun. 74:5943.
  4. Bisset, L.R. and Schmid-Grendelmeier, P. (2005) Curr. Opin. Pulm. Med. 11:35.
  5. Frangogiannis, N.G. (2004) Inflamm. Res. 53:585.
  6. Bystry, R.S. et al. (2001) Nat. Immunol. 2:1126.
  7. Oliveira, S.H.P. et al. (2002) J. Leukoc. Biol. 71:1019.
  8. Schall, T.J. et al. (1993) J. Exp. Med. 177:1821.
  9. Guan, E. et al. (2001) J. Biol. Chem. 276:12404.
  10. Guan, E. et al. (2002) J. Biol. Chem. 277:32348.
  11. Guan, E. et al. (2004) J. Cell. Biochem. 92:53.
Entrez Gene IDs
6351 (Human); 20303 (Mouse); 116637 (Rat); 448786 (Canine)
Alternate Names
ACT2; ACT-2; AT744.1; C-C motif chemokine 4; CCL4; chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 4; Exodus-3; G-26 T-lymphocyte-secreted protein; G-26; HC21; LAG1; LAG-1; Lymphocyte activation gene 1 protein; Macrophage inflammatory protein 1-beta; MIP1 beta; MIP-1 beta; MIP1B; MIP1B1; MIP-1-beta; MIP-1-beta(1-69); PAT 744; Protein H400; SCYA2; SCYA4; secreted protein G-26; SIS-gamma; small inducible cytokine A4 (homologous to mouse Mip-1b); Small-inducible cytokine A4; T-cell activation protein 2

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Isotype Controls

Reconstitution Buffers

Secondary Antibodies

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