|CDNF in Human Brain. CDNF was detected in immersion fixed paraffin-embedded sections of human brain (cortex) using 10 µg/mL Goat Anti-Human CDNF Antigen Affinity-purified Polyclonal Antibody (Catalog # AF5097) overnight at 4 °C. Before incubation with the primary antibody tissue was subjected to heat-induced epitope retrieval using Antigen Retrieval Reagent-Basic (Catalog # CTS013). Tissue was stained with the Anti-Goat HRP-DAB Cell & Tissue Staining Kit (brown; Catalog # CTS008) and counterstained with hematoxylin (blue). View our protocol for Chromogenic IHC Staining of Paraffin-embedded Tissue Sections.|
CDNF (conserved dopamine neurotrophic factor), also called Armetl1 (arginine-rich, mutated in early stage tumors-like 1) in mouse, is a 17-19 kDa secreted protein that shares 62% amino acid (aa) identity with human MANF (mesencephalic-astrocyte-derived neurotrophic factor), also called Armet in mouse (1). The Armet designation is not preferred, because the proteins when translated are not actually arginine-rich (1). However, both CDNF and MANF have a high proportion of charged residues, a pattern of eight cysteines shown to form intramoleculular disulfides, and a C-terminal endoplasmic reticulum retention signal (shown to function in MANF) (1-3). The human CDNF cDNA encodes a 187 aa protein with a 24 aa signal sequence and a 163 mature sequence (1). Mature human CDNF shares 80%, 84%, 90%, and 92% aa identity with mouse, rat, equine, and bovine CDNF, respectively. Although CDNF mRNA and protein are expressed in pre- and post-natal mouse brain, they are most abundant in adult heart, skeletal muscle and testis. Transcripts within the postnatal mouse brain are concentrated in the hippocampus, thalamus, corpus callosum and optic nerve (1). Like MANF and GDNF, CDNF promotes survival of dopaminergic neurons in vitro (1, 4). In a rat Parkinson’s disease model, CDNF also promotes rescue and restoration of dopaminergic neurons in vivo (1).
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