Human Erythropoietin/EPO Antibody Summary
Accession # CAA26094
Please Note: Optimal dilutions should be determined by each laboratory for each application. General Protocols are available in the Technical Information section on our website.
Erythropoietin/EPO in Human Liver. Erythropoietin/EPO was detected in immersion fixed paraffin-embedded sections of human liver using Mouse Anti-Human Erythropoietin/EPO Monoclonal Antibody (Catalog # MAB2873) at 5 µg/mL for 1 hour at room temperature followed by incubation with the Anti-Mouse IgG VisUCyte™ HRP Polymer Antibody (Catalog # VC001). Before incubation with the primary antibody, tissue was subjected to heat-induced epitope retrieval using Antigen Retrieval Reagent-Basic (Catalog # CTS013). Tissue was stained using DAB (brown) and counterstained with hematoxylin (blue). Specific staining was localized to cytoplasm in hepatocytes. View our protocol for IHC Staining with VisUCyte HRP Polymer Detection Reagents.
Preparation and Storage
- 12 months from date of receipt, -20 to -70 °C as supplied.
- 1 month, 2 to 8 °C under sterile conditions after reconstitution.
- 6 months, -20 to -70 °C under sterile conditions after reconstitution.
Erythropoietin (EPO) is a 34 kDa glycoprotein hormone in the type I cytokine family and is related to thrombopoietin (1). Its three N-glycosylation sites, four alpha helices, and N- to C-terminal disulfide bond are conserved across species (2, 3). Glycosylation of EPO is required for biological activities in vivo (4). Mature human EPO shares 75%-84% amino acid sequence identity with bovine, canine, equine, feline, mouse, ovine, porcine, and rat EPO. EPO is primarily produced in the kidney by a population of fibroblast-like cortical interstitial cells adjacent to the proximal tubules (5). It is also produced in much lower, but functionally significant amounts by fetal hepatocytes and in adult liver and brain (6-8). EPO promotes erythrocyte formation by preventing the apoptosis of early erythroid precursors which express the EPO receptor (EPO R) (8, 9). EPO R has also been described in brain, retina, heart, skeletal muscle, kidney, endothelial cells, and a variety of tumor cells (7, 8, 10, 11). Ligand induced dimerization of EPO R triggers JAK2-mediated signaling pathways followed by receptor/ligand endocytosis and degradation (1, 12). Rapid regulation of circulating EPO allows tight control of erythrocyte production and hemoglobin concentrations. Anemia or other causes of low tissue oxygen tension induce EPO production by stabilizing the hypoxia-induceable transcription factors HIF-1 alpha and HIF-2 alpha (1, 6). EPO additionally plays a tissue-protective role in ischemia by blocking apoptosis and inducing angiogenesis (7, 8, 13).
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