Human IL-21 Antibody

Catalog # Availability Size / Price Qty
MAB15002-100
MAB15002-SP
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Human IL-21 Antibody Summary

Species Reactivity
Human
Specificity
Detects human IL-21 in direct ELISAs.
Source
Monoclonal Mouse IgG1 Clone # 1012733
Purification
Protein A or G purified from hybridoma culture supernatant
Immunogen
E. coli-derived human IL-21
Gln32-Ser162
Accession # Q9HBE4.3
Formulation
Lyophilized from a 0.2 μm filtered solution in PBS with Trehalose. *Small pack size (SP) is supplied either lyophilized or as a 0.2 µm filtered solution in PBS.
Label
Unconjugated

Applications

Recommended Concentration
Sample
ELISA

This antibody functions as an ELISA detection antibody when paired with Mouse Anti-Human IL‑21 Monoclonal Antibody (Catalog # MAB15003) or Mouse Anti-Human IL‑21 Monoclonal Antibody (Catalog # MAB15001).

This product is intended for assay development on various assay platforms requiring antibody pairs.

 

Please Note: Optimal dilutions should be determined by each laboratory for each application. General Protocols are available in the Technical Information section on our website.

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Preparation and Storage

Reconstitution
Reconstitute at 0.5 mg/mL in sterile PBS.
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Shipping
The product is shipped at ambient temperature. Upon receipt, store it immediately at the temperature recommended below. *Small pack size (SP) is shipped with polar packs. Upon receipt, store it immediately at -20 to -70 °C
Stability & Storage
Use a manual defrost freezer and avoid repeated freeze-thaw cycles.
  • 12 months from date of receipt, -20 to -70 °C as supplied.
  • 1 month, 2 to 8 °C under sterile conditions after reconstitution.
  • 6 months, -20 to -70 °C under sterile conditions after reconstitution.

Background: IL-21

IL-21 (Interleukin-21) is a potent cytokine regulating many cell types of the immune system. IL-21 is produced by activated T follicular helper cells (Tfh), Th17 cells, and NKT cells (2-6). Tfh-derived IL-21 plays an important role in the development of humoral immunity through its autocrine effects on the Tfh cell and paracrine effects on immunoglobulin affinity maturation, plasma cell differentiation, and B cell memory responses (4, 8, 9). IL-21 protein regulates several aspects of T cell function. It co-stimulates the activation, proliferation, and survival of CD8+ T cells and NKT cells and promotes Th17 cell polarization (3, 5, 6, 11, 12). IL-21 blocks the generation of regulatory T cells and their suppressive effects on CD4+ T cells (13, 14). In addition to its role in T cell biology, IL-21 also plays a critical role in B cell activation, proliferation, differentiation, and apoptosis (2). It is also required for the migration of dendritic cells to draining lymph nodes (10). And IL-21 suppresses cutaneous hypersensitivity reactions by limiting allergen-specific IgE production and mast cell degranulation (16). In the autoimmune disease Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), a link between IL-21 and SLE disease susceptibility and progression was recently reported (19).

IL-21 protein exerts its biological effects through a heterodimeric receptor complex of gamma c and the IL-21-specific IL-21 R (2, 7). IL-21 is an approximately 14 kDa four-helix-bundle member of the family of cytokines that utilize the common gamma chain (gamma c) as a receptor subunit. gamma c is also a subunit of the receptors for IL-2, IL-4, IL-7, IL-9, and IL-15 (1). IL-21 R engagement enhances the cytolytic activity and IFN-gamma production of activated NK cells but limits the expansion of resting NK cells (15). Dysregulation of the IL-21/IL-21 R system contributes to the development of multiple immunological disorders (1, 17). The 133 amino acid (aa) mature human IL-21 protein shares 63% and 61% aa sequence identity with mouse and rat IL-21 protein, respectively. Alternative splicing generates an additional isoform with a substitution of the C-terminal 16 amino acids (18).

References
  1. Tangye, S.G. (2015) Curr. Opin. Immunol. 34:107.
  2. Parrish-Novak, et al. (2000) Nature 408:57.
  3. Coquet, J.M. et al. (2007) J. Immunol. 178:2827.
  4. Vogelzang, A. et al. (2008) Immunity 29:127.
  5. Korn, T. et al. (2007) Nature 448:484.
  6. Nurieva, R. et al. (2007) Nature 448:480.
  7. Asao, H. et al. (2001) J. Immunol. 167:1.
  8. Zotos, D. et al. (2010) J. Exp. Med. 207:365.
  9. Rankin, A.L. et al. (2011) J. Immunol. 186:667.
  10. Jin, H. et al. (2009) J. Clin. Invest. 119:47.
  11. Frohlich, A. et al. (2009) Science 324:1576.
  12. Yi, J.S. et al. (2009) Science 324:1572.
  13. Peluso, I. et al. (2007) J. Immunol. 178:732.
  14. Bucher, C. et al. (2009) Blood 114:5375.
  15. Kasaian, M.T. et al. (2002) Immunity 16:559.
  16. Tamagawa-Mineoka, R. et al. (2011) J. Invest. Dermatol. 131:1513.
  17. Ma, J. et al. (2011) Cytokine 56:133.
  18. Rahman, M. et al. (2007) FEBS Lett. 581:4001.
  19. Wang, et al. (2018) Nature Commun. 9: 1758.
Long Name
Interleukin 21
Entrez Gene IDs
59067 (Human); 60505 (Mouse); 365769 (Rat); 442935 (Canine); 100344172 (Rabbit)
Alternate Names
CVID11; IL21; IL-21; IL-21Za11interleukin-21; interleukin 21; interleukin-21 isoform; Za11

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