Human Tsukushi/TSK Antibody

  
  • Species Reactivity
    Human
  • Specificity
    Detects human Tsukushi/TSK in direct ELISAs and Western blots. In direct ELISAs, approximately 40% cross-reactivity with recombinant mouse TSK is observed.
  • Source
    Polyclonal Goat IgG
  • Purification
    Antigen Affinity-purified
  • Immunogen
    Mouse myeloma cell line NS0-derived recombinant human Tsukushi/TSK
    Thr17-Leu353
    Accession # Q8WUA8
  • Formulation
    Lyophilized from a 0.2 μm filtered solution in PBS with Trehalose. *Small pack size (SP) is supplied as a 0.2 µm filtered solution in PBS.
  • Label
    Unconjugated
Applications
  •  
    Recommended
    Concentration
    Sample
  • Immunohistochemistry
    5-15 µg/mL
    See below
Please Note: Optimal dilutions should be determined by each laboratory for each application. General Protocols are available in the Technical Information section on our website.
Data Examples
Immunohistochemistry
Tsukushi/TSK in Human Colon Cancer Tissue. Tsukushi/TSK was detected in immersion fixed paraffin-embedded sections of human colon cancer tissue using Goat Anti-Human Tsukushi/TSK Antigen Affinity-purified Polyclonal Antibody (Catalog # AF3940) at 10 µg/mL overnight at 4 °C. Before incubation with the primary antibody, tissue was subjected to heat-induced epitope retrieval using Antigen Retrieval Reagent-Basic (Catalog # CTS013). Tissue was stained using the Anti-Goat HRP-DAB Cell & Tissue Staining Kit (brown; Catalog # CTS008) and counterstained with hematoxylin (blue). Lower panel shows a lack of labeling when primary antibodies are omitted and tissue is stained only with secondary antibody followed by incubation with detection reagents. Specific staining was localized to smooth muscle. View our protocol for Chromogenic IHC Staining of Paraffin-embedded Tissue Sections.
Preparation and Storage
  • Reconstitution
    Sterile PBS to a final concentration of 0.2 mg/mL.
  • Shipping
    The product is shipped at ambient temperature. Upon receipt, store it immediately at the temperature recommended below. *Small pack size (SP) is shipped with polar packs. Upon receipt, store it immediately at -20 to -70 °C
  • Stability & Storage
    Use a manual defrost freezer and avoid repeated freeze-thaw cycles.
    • 12 months from date of receipt, -20 to -70 °C as supplied.
    • 1 month, 2 to 8 °C under sterile conditions after reconstitution.
    • 6 months, -20 to -70 °C under sterile conditions after reconstitution.
Background: Tsukushi/TSK
TSK, also known as Tsukushi, is an atypical member of the small leucine-rich proteoglycan (SLRP) family of extracellular matrix proteins (1, 2). All contain leucine-rich repeats (LRR) flanked by conserved cysteines, but the C-terminus of TSK resembles the structure of nyctalopin and chondroadherin rather than class I‑III SLRPs (1). The human TSK cDNA encodes a 16 amino acid (aa) signal sequence and a 337 aa secreted (presumably glycosylated) protein that contains nine LRR (2). Proteoglycan modification of TSK has not been shown. SLRP-like activity or expression of TSK has been identified in several contexts. TSK mRNA is upregulated by estrogen treatment in breast cancer cell lines, and so is proposed to be involved in hormonally regulated extracellular matrix remodeling (2). TSK is upregulated along with bone markers in Vitamin K2-treated osteosarcoma cell lines, mediated by the pregnane X receptor, PXR (3). TSK was also shown to contribute to vitamin K2-mediated enhancement of collagen accumulation. Other SLRPs have been shown to form a protective coat around collagen fibrils, shielding them from proteolysis (4). In rats, expression of TSK in liver, intestines and islets of Langerhans resembles the pattern of Glut2 (5). TSK transcription is upregulated by both estrogen and insulin in hepatocytes. In Xenopus and chick embryos, TSK is expressed in the middle primitive streak, where it binds and antagonizes BMP-4 and promotes dorsalization and formation of the neural crest and the primitive organizer (6, 7). Xenopus TSK also binds the extracellular region of delta-1, modulating Notch activity (7). Human TSK shows 87%, 86%, 86%, 85%, 52% and 50% aa identity with canine, mouse, rat, bovine, chick, and Xenopus TSK, respectively, with the highest identity in the first four LRR.
  • References:
    1. McEwan, P.A. et al. (2006) J. Struct. Biol. 155:294.
    2. Charpentier, A.H. et al. (2000) Cancer Res. 60:5977.
    3. Ichikawa, T. et al. 2006, J. Biol. Chem. 281:16927.
    4. Geng, Y. et al. (2006) Matrix Biol. 25:484.
    5. Coffy, S. et al. (2005) Biochem. J. 385:165.
    6. Ohta, K. et al. (2004) Dev. Cell 7:347.
    7. Kuriyama, S. et al. (2006) Development 133:75.
  • Long Name:
    Tsukushin Leucine-rich Repeat Containing Protein 54
  • Entrez Gene IDs:
    25987 (Human)
  • Alternate Names:
    E2IG4; E2IG4E2-induced gene 4 protein; leucine rich repeat containing 54; Leucine-rich repeat-containing protein 54; LRRC54; TSK; TSKtsukushi homolog; TSKU; tsukushi small leucine rich proteoglycan homolog (Xenopus laevis); Tsukushi; tsukushi, small leucine rich proteoglycan; tsukushin
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