Rat TNF-alpha Biotinylated Antibody
Rat TNF-alpha Biotinylated Antibody Summary
Accession # P16599
Rat TNF-alpha Sandwich Immunoassay
Please Note: Optimal dilutions should be determined by each laboratory for each application. General Protocols are available in the Technical Information section on our website.
Preparation and Storage
- 12 months from date of receipt, -20 to -70 °C as supplied.
- 1 month, 2 to 8 °C under sterile conditions after reconstitution.
- 6 months, -20 to -70 °C under sterile conditions after reconstitution.
Tumor Necrosis Factor Alpha (TNF-alpha ) also known as Cachectin and TNFSF2, is the prototypic ligand of the TNF superfamily. It is a pleiotropic molecule that plays a central role in inflammation, apoptosis, and immune system development. TNF-alpha is produced by a wide variety of immune and epithelial cell types (1, 2). Rat TNF-alpha consisits of a 35 amino acid (aa) cytoplasmic domain, a 21 aa transmembrane segment, and a 179 aa extracellular domain (ECD) (3). Within the ECD, rat TNF-alpha shares 94% aa sequence identity with mouse and 69% - 76% with bovine, canine, cotton rat, equine, feline, human, porcine, and rhesus TNF-alpha. The 26 kDa type 2 transmembrane protein is assembled intracellularly to form a noncovalently linked homotrimer (4). Ligation of this complex induces reverse signaling that promotes lymphocyte co-stimulation but diminishes monocyte responsiveness (5). Cleavage of membrane bound TNF-alpha by TACE/ADAM17 releases a 55 kDa soluble trimeric form of TNF-alpha (6, 7). TNF-alpha trimers bind the ubiquitous TNF RI and the hematopoietic cell-restricted TNF RII, both of which are also expressed as homotrimers (1, 8). TNF-alpha regulates lymphoid tissue development through control of apoptosis (2). It also promotes inflammatory responses by inducing the activation of vascular endothelial cells and macrophages (2). TNF-alpha is a key cytokine in the development of several inflammatory disorders (9). It contributes to the development of type 2 diabetes through its effects on insulin resistance and fatty acid metabolism (10, 11).
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- Hehlgans, T. and K. Pfeffer (2005) Immunology 115:1.
- Estler, H.C. et al. (1992) Biol. Chem. Hoppe-Seyler 373:271.
- Tang, P. et al. (1996) Biochemistry 35:8216.
- Eissner G. et al. (2004) Cytokine Growth Factor Rev. 15:353.
- Black, R.A. et al. (1997) Nature 385:729.
- Moss, M.L. et al. (1997) Nature 385:733.
- Loetscher, H. et al. (1991) J. Biol. Chem. 266:18324.
- Clark, I.A. (2007) Cytokine Growth Factor Rev. 18:335.
- Romanatto, T. et al. (2007) Peptides 28:1050.
- Hector, J. et al. (2007) Horm. Metab. Res. 39:250.
Citations for Rat TNF-alpha Biotinylated Antibody
R&D Systems personnel manually curate a database that contains references using R&D Systems products. The data collected includes not only links to publications in PubMed, but also provides information about sample types, species, and experimental conditions.
Citations: Showing 1 - 4
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Ulva lactuca polysaccharides prevent Wistar rat breast carcinogenesis through the augmentation of apoptosis, enhancement of antioxidant defense system, and suppression of inflammation
Authors: GF Abd-Ellate, OM Ahmed, ES Abdel-Rehe, AZ Abdel-Hami
Breast Cancer (Dove Med Press), 2017;9(0):67-83.
Sample Types: Serum
Applications: ELISA Development (Detection)
Rat pneumonia and soft-tissue infection models for the study of Acinetobacter baumannii biology.
Authors: Russo TA, Beanan JM, Olson R, MacDonald U, Luke NR, Gill SR, Campagnari AA
Infect. Immun., 2008;76(8):3577-86.
Sample Types: BALF
Applications: ELISA Development
TNFalpha-induced MMP-9 promotes macrophage recruitment into injured peripheral nerve.
Authors: Shubayev VI, Angert M, Dolkas J, Campana WM, Palenscar K, Myers RR
Mol. Cell. Neurosci., 2006;31(3):407-15.
Sample Types: Cell Lysates
Applications: Western Blot
In vivo modulation of LPS-induced alterations in brain and peripheral cytokines and HPA axis activity by cannabinoids.
Authors: Roche M, Diamond M, Finn DP
J. Neuroimmunol., 2006;181(1):57-67.
Sample Types: Plasma
Applications: ELISA Development
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