|Cytotoxicity Induced by TNF-alpha and Neutralization by Rat TNF-alpha Antibody. Recombinant Rat TNF-alpha (Catalog # 510-RT) induces cytotoxicity in the the L-929 mouse fibroblast cell line in a dose-dependent manner (orange line), as measured by Resazurin (Catalog # AR002). Cytotoxicity elicited by Recombinant Rat TNF-alpha (0.025 ng/mL) is neutralized (green line) by increasing concentrations of Rat TNF-alpha Recombinant Monoclonal Antibody (Catalog # MAB510R). The ND50 is typically 10-40 µg/mL in the presence of the metabolic inhibitor Actinomycin D (0.5 µg/mL, Catalog # 1229).|
Tumor Necrosis Factor Alpha (TNF-alpha ) also known as Cachectin, is the prototypic ligand of the TNF superfamily. It is a pleiotropic molecule that plays a central role in inflammation, apoptosis, and immune system development. TNF-alpha is produced by a wide variety of immune and epithelial cell types (1, 2). Rat TNF-alpha consisits of a 35 amino acid (aa) cytoplasmic domain, a 21 aa transmembrane segment, and a 179 aa extracellular domain (ECD) (3). Within the ECD, rat TNF-alpha shares 94% aa sequence identity with mouse and 69-76% with bovine, canine, cotton rat, equine, feline, human, porcine, and rhesus macaque TNF-alpha. The 26 kDa type 2 transmembrane protein is assembled intracellularly to form a noncovalently linked homotrimer (4). Ligation of this complex induces reverse signaling that promotes lymphocyte co-stimulation but diminishes monocyte responsiveness (5). Cleavage of membrane bound TNF-alpha by TACE/ADAM17 releases a 55 kDa soluble trimeric form of TNF-alpha (6, 7). TNF-alpha trimers bind the ubiquitous TNF RI and the hematopoietic cell-restricted TNF RII, both of which are also expressed as homotrimers (1, 8). TNF-alpha regulates lymphoid tissue development through control of apoptosis (2). It also promotes inflammatory responses by inducing the activation of vascular endothelial cells and macrophages (2). TNF-alpha is a key cytokine in the development of several inflammatory disorders (9). It contributes to the development of type 2 diabetes through its effects on insulin resistance and fatty acid metabolism (10, 11).
The reconstitution calculator allows you to quickly calculate the volume of a reagent to reconstitute your vial. Simply enter the mass of reagent and the target concentration and the calculator will determine the rest.
The document you requested is not available online. Please enter the Catalog Number and Lot Number below to have a document emailed to you at the address provided