Rat TNF-alpha Antibody Summary
Accession # P16599
Rat TNF-alpha Sandwich Immunoassay
Please Note: Optimal dilutions should be determined by each laboratory for each application. General Protocols are available in the Technical Information section on our website.
Cytotoxicity Induced by TNF-alpha and Neutralization by Rat TNF-alpha Antibody. Recombinant Rat TNF-alpha (Catalog # 510-RT) induces cytotoxicity in the the L-929 mouse fibroblast cell line in a dose-dependent manner (orange line), as measured by Resazurin (Catalog # AR002). Cytotoxicity elicited by Recombinant Rat TNF-alpha (0.025 ng/mL) is neutralized (green line) by increasing concentrations of Rat TNF-alpha Recombinant Monoclonal Antibody (Catalog # MAB510R). The ND50 is typically 10-40 µg/mL in the presence of the metabolic inhibitor Actinomycin D (0.5 µg/mL, Catalog # 1229).
Preparation and Storage
- 12 months from date of receipt, -20 to -70 °C as supplied.
- 1 month, 2 to 8 °C under sterile conditions after reconstitution.
- 6 months, -20 to -70 °C under sterile conditions after reconstitution.
Tumor Necrosis Factor Alpha (TNF-alpha ) also known as Cachectin, is the prototypic ligand of the TNF superfamily. It is a pleiotropic molecule that plays a central role in inflammation, apoptosis, and immune system development. TNF-alpha is produced by a wide variety of immune and epithelial cell types (1, 2). Rat TNF-alpha consisits of a 35 amino acid (aa) cytoplasmic domain, a 21 aa transmembrane segment, and a 179 aa extracellular domain (ECD) (3). Within the ECD, rat TNF-alpha shares 94% aa sequence identity with mouse and 69-76% with bovine, canine, cotton rat, equine, feline, human, porcine, and rhesus macaque TNF-alpha. The 26 kDa type 2 transmembrane protein is assembled intracellularly to form a noncovalently linked homotrimer (4). Ligation of this complex induces reverse signaling that promotes lymphocyte co-stimulation but diminishes monocyte responsiveness (5). Cleavage of membrane bound TNF-alpha by TACE/ADAM17 releases a 55 kDa soluble trimeric form of TNF-alpha (6, 7). TNF-alpha trimers bind the ubiquitous TNF RI and the hematopoietic cell-restricted TNF RII, both of which are also expressed as homotrimers (1, 8). TNF-alpha regulates lymphoid tissue development through control of apoptosis (2). It also promotes inflammatory responses by inducing the activation of vascular endothelial cells and macrophages (2). TNF-alpha is a key cytokine in the development of several inflammatory disorders (9). It contributes to the development of type 2 diabetes through its effects on insulin resistance and fatty acid metabolism (10, 11).
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- Eissner G. et al. (2004) Cytokine Growth Factor Rev. 15:353.
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- Moss, M.L. et al. (1997) Nature 385:733.
- Loetscher, H. et al. (1991) J. Biol. Chem. 266:18324.
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- Romanatto, T. et al. (2007) Peptides 28:1050.
- Hector, J. et al. (2007) Horm. Metab. Res. 39:250.
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