Regulators of the immune checkpoint represent some of the most promising targets for immunotherapy. R&D Systems offers the widest selection of checkpoint proteins, all assessed for bioactivity and held to rigorous specifications that must be matched for each lot of protein made. The proteins include a selection of different tags and species, including Cynomolgus, allowing for maximum experimental flexibility. Our selection ranges from traditional targets such as PD-L1 and CTLA4, to next generation targets such as the Butyrophilins and LILRA/B Receptors. Custom options are available for new proteins, tags, species, and more.
AMIGO family proteins are cell adhesion molecules that exhibit homophilic and heterophilic binding properties. Our in-house data shows that AMIGO2 and AMIGO3 inhibit T cell functions in vitro.
This group contains some of the most targeted checkpoint proteins, including PD-1, PD-L1, and CTLA4.
Butyrophilins have similar structure to the B7 family and are promising new checkpoint targets.
Fc receptors bind antibodies where they regulate the immune response and the antibody pharmacokinetics.
Enzymes of the Kynurenine pathway include Tryptophan Hydroxylases, Kynurenine 3-Monooxygenase (KMO), Indoleamine 2,3 dioxygenases (IDO), Kynurenine Aminotransferase 1 (KAT1), and KAT2 (alpha-Aminoadipate Aminotransferase). Known for immunosuppressive function, the enzymes are checkpoint targets.
LAIR1 is a collagen-binding partner and a suppressor of T cell proliferation and activation.
A subset of the V-set and Ig domain-containing (VSIG) proteins are being recognized for their association with immune checkpoint, including TIGIT and VSIG3, a novel Vista-interacting protein.
Inhibitory leukocyte immunoglobulin-like receptors are increasingly recognized for putative roles in immune checkpoint and tumor promoters.
Including TIGIT and CD155/PVR, modulators of T Cell and NK cell activity and important immunotherapy targets.
Use our immunoassays and kits to measure cytokine secretion, proliferation, and cytotoxicity to ensure T cells are functioning as expected.
Expressed by a range of immune cell types, most members of the SLAM family can interact homotypically and may be immune activators or suppressors.
A subset of this large family include immune checkpoint targets such CD40 , GITR, and HVEM.
The SIRP alpha/CD47 signaling pathway is a myeloid cell-specific phagocytosis checkpoint that has recently gained more interest as a potential therapeutic target.
Siglecs are receptors located primarily on the surface of hematopoietic cells that play a role in tumor immunosurveillance, suggesting that they may serve as cancer immunotherapy targets.
CEACAM proteins have a wide variety of different functions in cell adhesion, inflammation, angiogenesis, and cancer. CEACAM-1, -5, and -6 are now considered to be cancer biomarkers and potential targets for cancer immunotherapy.
VSTM proteins are structurally related to the B7 family proteins. Many members have been found to suppress cytokine secretion by human T cells, suggesting that they may play a role in regulating T cell functions in vivo.
Proteins including LAG-3, DPPIV, certain Integrins, and others are current targets of immune checkpoint research.
Other immune-checkpoint blockade resources:
All proteins from R&D Systems