ELISAs For Quantifying Cytokine Release

R&D Systems ELISA Kits for Cytokine Detection

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What are Cytokines?

Cytokines are a broad group of soluble and transient bioactive proteins that range in size from 6 to 70 kilodaltons (kDa) (1). These pleiotropic and redundant (2) proteins act via autocrine, paracrine, and endocrine signaling mechanisms to produce effects that can be additive, antagonistic or synergistic. Cytokines are secreted by immune cells such as neutrophils, monocytes, macrophages, B cells and T cells to modulate immune responses (1). Cytokines are very bioactive, and as such, circulating levels are typically low in healthy people.  Immunotherapy or viral infections can stimulate excessive cytokine secretion or even cytokine release syndrome (CRS). Also known as the cytokine storm, CRS is a systemic inflammatory response that has symptoms ranging from mild fever to death. Given the broad range of cytokine effects, a great deal of effort is aimed at quantifying secretion as part of an immunotherapy or viral infection workflow. Although a wide variety of assays are available for measuring cytokines, enzyme linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs) are one of the most commonly used tools in cytokine research and development.

 

Why use ELISAs to quantify cytokines?

ELISAs are the workhorse assay for measuring secreted cytokines. They are a scalable, straightforward and effective tool for measuring cytokines. R&D Systems, a Bio-Techne brand has a long history of developing and measuring cytokines. Cytokine ELISA Kits allow researchers to accurately measure the levels of specific cytokines under physiological and pathological conditions in biological samples such as plasma, serum, tissue culture supernatants, and urine, which can provide valuable insight into the changes associated with different disease states. Specific cytokines of interest include interleukins, interferons, chemokines, and members of the tumor necrosis factor and TGF-beta superfamilies.

Quantikine® ELISAs represent the highest quality, most published ELISA on the market. Use these, gold-standard ready-to-use ELISAs to accurately and reliably quantify cytokine secretion. High Sensitivity Quantikine® ELISAs are ideal for quantifying cytokine levels in human disease state samples and healthy human samples. With a 90 minute assay time, the Quantikine® QuicKitTM ELISA saves time and increases productivity.  DuoSet® ELISAs are an economical alternative to the Quantikine ELISA. This do-it-yourself assay allows the investigator to optimize the assay to their specifications and adapt to alternative platforms. Finally, the Simple Plex platform which features ELLA, is an automated ELISA that saves time, sample volume and reduces user error. This assay is particularly useful for maintaining assay accuracy and precision in large populations across disparate geographies.

 

Why use ELISpot assays to measure cytokines?

Enzyme-linked immunospot (ELISpot) assays are used to detect and enumerate cells that are secreting cytokines.  This scalable assay is particularly useful for quantifying secretion of low abundance cytokines.  ELISpots are ideal for measuring 1 or 2 cytokines simultaneously and use chromogenic or fluorescent methods to visualize cytokines. R&D Systems has both ready-to-use ELISpots as well as do-it-yourself development modules. We have a number of Interferon Gamma (IFN-γ) dual-color ELISpot assays available.

 

Choose the right ELISA or ELISpot Assay for your needs

Quantikine ELISA Kits

Quantikine ELISA Kits

Fully validated ready-to-run ELISA kits with superior performance. Our Quantikine ELISA kits are the most published ELISA brand on the market.

 

Quantikine ELISA Kits

High Sensitivity ELISA Kits

High Sensitivity
ELISA Kits

A branch of our Quantikine ELISA offering, but with added sensitivity. These are ideal for detecting a low-abundance protein in serum and plasma samples.

 

High Sensitivity ELISA Kits

QuicKit ELISA Kits

QuicKit
ELISA Kits

Another branch of our Quantikine ELISA, but these can be run in a fraction of the time. Time to results is 90 minutes.

 

 

QuicKit ELISA Kits

“DuoSet ELISA Kits

DuoSet
ELISA Kits

DuoSet ELISAs are do-it-yourself development kits so you can have some flexibility and save some money.

 

 

 

DuoSet ELISA Kits

Automated ELISAs

Automated ELISAs

Automate your ELISA with Ella. Save on time and labor with these highly validated assays with the added benefit of multi-analyte detection.

 

Automated ELISAs

ELISpot Assays

ELISpot Assays

Detect and enumerate cells that are secreting cytokines. Available in many formats with detection of up to 2 cytokines at once.

 

 

ELISpot Assays

 

ELISA kits for the Most Popular Cytokines

Activin A FGF-21 IL-15 PlGF
Adiponectin G-CSF IL-17 RBP4
Angiopoietin-2 GDF-15 IL-18 Serpin E1
ANGPTL3 GDF-8 IL-1ra Serum Amyloid A
BAFF GM-CSF IL-2 SOST
BMP-2 HGF IL-22 ST2
CCL17 IFN-alpha IL-33 TGF-beta 1
CCL18 IFN-beta IL-4 TGF-beta 2
CCL2 IFN-gamma IL-5 Thrombopoietin
CCL4 IGF-I IL-6 TNF RI
CCL5 IL-1 alpha IL-6R alpha TNF RII
CD25 IL-1 beta IL-8 TNF-alpha
EGF IL-10 Leptin VEGF
FGF basic IL-12 p70 Lipocalin-2 VEGFR1
FGF-19 IL-13 PDGF-BB  

 

Cytokine ELISpot Assays

Apolipoprotein A-I Granzyme B IL-2 MMP-1
BDNF IFN-gamma IL-23 MMP-3
CCL5 IL-1 beta IL-31 MMP-7
CXCL10 IL-10 IL-4 MMP-9
CXCL9 IL-12 p40 IL-5 TGF-beta 1
Fas Ligand IL-13 IL-6 TIMP-1
GDNF IL-16 IL-8 TNF-alpha
GM-CSF IL-17 IL-9  

 

References

  1. Stenken, J. A. and A. J. Poschenrieder (2015) Anal Chim Acta. 853:95
  2. Ozaki, K. and W.J. Leonard (2002) JBC. 277:29355