Human GDF-15 Antibody

Catalog # Availability Size / Price Qty
AF957
AF957-SP
Detection  of Human GDF‑15 by Western Blot.
2 Images
Product Details
Citations (5)
FAQs
Supplemental Products
Reviews (1)

Human GDF-15 Antibody Summary

Species Reactivity
Human
Specificity
Detects human GDF-15 in direct ELISAs and Western blots. In direct ELISAs and Western blots, approximately 65% cross-reactivity with recombinant mouse (rm) GDF-15 is observed, and less than 1% cross-reactivity with rmGDF‑1, rmGDF-3, and rmGDF-11 is observed.
Source
Polyclonal Goat IgG
Purification
Antigen Affinity-purified
Immunogen
Chinese hamster ovary cell line CHO-derived recombinant human GDF-15
Ala197-Ile308
Accession # Q99988
Formulation
Lyophilized from a 0.2 μm filtered solution in PBS with Trehalose. *Small pack size (SP) is supplied as a 0.2 µm filtered solution in PBS.
Label
Unconjugated

Applications

Recommended Concentration
Sample
Western Blot
0.5 µg/mL
See below
Simple Western
5 µg/mL
See below

Please Note: Optimal dilutions should be determined by each laboratory for each application. General Protocols are available in the Technical Information section on our website.

Data Examples

Western Blot Detection  of Human GDF‑15 by Western Blot. View Larger

Detection of Human GDF‑15 by Western Blot. Western blot shows lysate of HT1080 human fibrosarcoma cell line. PVDF membrane was probed with 0.5 µg/mL of Goat Anti-Human GDF‑15 Antigen Affinity-purified Polyclonal Antibody (Catalog # AF957) followed by HRP-conjugated Anti-Goat IgG Secondary Antibody (Catalog # HAF017). A specific band was detected for GDF‑15 at approximately 35 kDa (as indicated). This experiment was conducted under reducing conditions and using Immunoblot Buffer Group 1.

Simple Western Detection  of Human GDF‑15 by Simple WesternTM. View Larger

Detection of Human GDF‑15 by Simple WesternTM. Simple Western lane view shows lysate of HT1080 human fibrosarcoma cell line, loaded at 0.2 mg/mL. A specific band was detected for GDF‑15 at approximately 47 kDa (as indicated) using 5 µg/mL of Goat Anti-Human GDF‑15 Antigen Affinity-purified Polyclonal Antibody (Catalog # AF957) followed by 1:50 dilution of HRP-conjugated Anti-Goat IgG Secondary Antibody (Catalog # HAF109). This experiment was conducted under reducing conditions and using the
12-230 kDa separation system.        

Reconstitution Calculator

Reconstitution Calculator

The reconstitution calculator allows you to quickly calculate the volume of a reagent to reconstitute your vial. Simply enter the mass of reagent and the target concentration and the calculator will determine the rest.

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Preparation and Storage

Reconstitution
Reconstitute at 0.2 mg/mL in sterile PBS.
Reconstitution Buffer Available
Reconstitution Buffer 1 (PBS)
Catalog #
Availability
Size / Price
Qty
RB01
Shipping
The product is shipped at ambient temperature. Upon receipt, store it immediately at the temperature recommended below. *Small pack size (SP) is shipped with polar packs. Upon receipt, store it immediately at -20 to -70 °C
Stability & Storage
Use a manual defrost freezer and avoid repeated freeze-thaw cycles.
  • 12 months from date of receipt, -20 to -70 °C as supplied.
  • 1 month, 2 to 8 °C under sterile conditions after reconstitution.
  • 6 months, -20 to -70 °C under sterile conditions after reconstitution.

Background: GDF-15

Growth Differentiation Factor 15 (GDF-15), also called Macrophage inhibitory cytokine-1 (MIC-1), placental transforming growth factor-beta, prostate-derived factor, and placental bone morphogenetic protein, is a divergent member of the transforming growth factor beta (TGF-beta ) superfamily. GDF-15 is highly expressed in placenta and is expressed at lower levels in kidney, pancreas, prostate and colon. It is also widely expressed in brain. Similar to other TGF-beta family proteins, GDF-15 is synthesized as a large precursor protein that is cleaved at the dibasic cleavage site (RXXR) to release the carboxy-terminal domain. The carboxy-terminal domain of GDF-15 contains the characteristic seven conserved cysteine residues necessary for the formation of the cysteine knot and the single interchain disulfide bond. Furthermore, the carboxy-terminal domain contains two additional cysteine residues that form a fourth intrachain disulfide bond. Biologically active GDF-15 is a disulfide-linked homodimer of the carboxy-terminal 112 amino acid residues. Mature human GDF-15 shares 66.1% and 68.7% amino acid sequence similarity with rat and mouse GDF-15, respectively, which are remarkably low homologies between species in TGF-beta superfamily. GDF-15 has been shown to have various functions, including inhibition of production of tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha ) from lipopolysaccharide-stimulated macrophages, induction of cartilage formation, early-stage endochonadal bone formation, and promotion of neuronal survival.

References
  1. Bootcov, M.R. et al. (1997) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 94:11514.
  2. Böttner, M. et al. (1999) Gene 237:105.
  3. Fairlie, W.D. et al. (1998) J. Leukoc. Biol 65:2.
  4. Fairlie, W.D. et al. (2001) J B.C 20:16911.
  5. Bauskin, A.R. et al. (2000) EMBO J. 19:2212.
  6. Strelau, J. et al. (2000) J. Neurosci. 20:8597.
  7. Schober, A. et al. (2001) J. Comp. Neurol. 439:32.
Long Name
Growth Differentiation Factor 15
Entrez Gene IDs
9518 (Human); 23886 (Mouse); 29455 (Rat)
Alternate Names
GDF15; GDF-15; growth differentiation factor 15; growth/differentiation factor 15; Macrophage inhibitory cytokine 1; MIC-1; MIC-1NSAID-activated gene 1 protein; MIC1Prostate differentiation factor; NAG-1; NAG-1NSAID-regulated gene 1 protein; NSAID (nonsteroidal inflammatory drug)-activated protein 1; PDF; PDFGDF-15; PLAB; PLABNRG-1; Placental bone morphogenetic protein; Placental TGF-beta; PTGF-beta; PTGFBPTGF-beta

Product Datasheets

Citations for Human GDF-15 Antibody

R&D Systems personnel manually curate a database that contains references using R&D Systems products. The data collected includes not only links to publications in PubMed, but also provides information about sample types, species, and experimental conditions.

5 Citations: Showing 1 - 5
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  1. An autocrine/paracrine circuit of growth differentiation factor (GDF) 15 has a role for maintenance of breast cancer stem-like cells
    Authors: A Sasahara, K Tominaga, T Nishimura, M Yano, E Kiyokawa, M Noguchi, M Noguchi, H Kanauchi, T Ogawa, H Minato, K Tada, Y Seto, A Tojo, N Gotoh
    Oncotarget, 2017;8(15):24869-24881.
    Species: Human
    Sample Types: Whole Cells
    Applications: Neutralization
  2. Panel of three novel serum markers predicts liver stiffness and fibrosis stages in patients with chronic liver disease
    Authors: M Krawczyk, S Zimmermann, G Hess, R Holz, M Dauer, J Raedle, F Lammert, F Grünhage
    PLoS ONE, 2017;12(3):e0173506.
    Species: Human
    Sample Types: Serum
    Applications: ELISA Development
  3. Growth Differentiation Factor-15-Induced Contractile Activity and Extracellular Matrix Production in Human Trabecular Meshwork Cells
    Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci, 2016;57(15):6482-6495.
    Species: Human
    Sample Types: Whole Tissue
    Applications: IHC-P
  4. Identification of macrophage inhibitory cytokine-1 in adipose tissue and its secretion as an adipokine by human adipocytes.
    Authors: Ding Q, Mracek T, Gonzalez-Muniesa P, Kos K, Wilding J, Trayhurn P, Bing C
    Endocrinology, 2009;150(4):1688-96.
    Species: Human
    Sample Types: Cell Lysates
    Applications: Western Blot
  5. Prognostic value of growth-differentiation factor-15 in patients with non-ST-elevation acute coronary syndrome.
    Authors: Wollert KC, Kempf T, Peter T, Olofsson S, James S, Johnston N, Lindahl B, Horn-Wichmann R, Brabant G, Simoons ML, Armstrong PW, Califf RM, Drexler H, Wallentin L
    Circulation, 2007;115(8):962-71.
    Species: Human
    Sample Types: Serum
    Applications: ELISA Development

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Secondary Antibodies

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Human GDF-15 Antibody
By Anonymous on 12/20/2017
Application: ELISA Sample Tested: EDTA Plasma Species: Human