Human GDF-15 Antibody

(5 citations)   
  • Species Reactivity
    Human
  • Specificity
    Detects human GDF-15 in direct ELISAs and Western blots. In direct ELISAs and Western blots, approximately 65% cross-reactivity with recombinant mouse (rm) GDF-15 is observed, and less than 1% cross-reactivity with rmGDF‑1, rmGDF-3, and rmGDF-11 is observed.
  • Source
    Polyclonal Goat IgG
  • Purification
    Antigen Affinity-purified
  • Immunogen
    Chinese hamster ovary cell line CHO-derived recombinant human GDF-15
    Ala197-Ile308
    Accession # Q99988
  • Formulation
    Lyophilized from a 0.2 μm filtered solution in PBS with Trehalose. *Small pack size (SP) is supplied as a 0.2 µm filtered solution in PBS.
  • Label
    Unconjugated
Applications
  •  
    Recommended
    Concentration
    Sample
  • Western Blot
    0.5 µg/mL
    See below
  • Simple Western
    5 µg/mL
    See below
Please Note: Optimal dilutions should be determined by each laboratory for each application. General Protocols are available in the Technical Information section on our website.
Data Examples
Detection of Human GDF‑15 by Western Blot. Western blot shows lysate of HT1080 human fibrosarcoma cell line. PVDF membrane was probed with 0.5 µg/mL of Goat Anti-Human GDF‑15 Antigen Affinity-purified Polyclonal Antibody (Catalog # AF957) followed by HRP-conjugated Anti-Goat IgG Secondary Antibody (Catalog # HAF017). A specific band was detected for GDF‑15 at approximately 35 kDa (as indicated). This experiment was conducted under reducing conditions and using Immunoblot Buffer Group 1.
Detection of Human GDF‑15 by Simple WesternTM. Simple Western lane view shows lysate of HT1080 human fibrosarcoma cell line, loaded at 0.2 mg/mL. A specific band was detected for GDF‑15 at approximately 47 kDa (as indicated) using 5 µg/mL of Goat Anti-Human GDF‑15 Antigen Affinity-purified Polyclonal Antibody (Catalog # AF957) followed by 1:50 dilution of HRP-conjugated Anti-Goat IgG Secondary Antibody (Catalog # HAF109). This experiment was conducted under reducing conditions and using the
12-230 kDa separation system.        
Preparation and Storage
  • Reconstitution
    Reconstitute at 0.2 mg/mL in sterile PBS.
  • Shipping
    The product is shipped at ambient temperature. Upon receipt, store it immediately at the temperature recommended below. *Small pack size (SP) is shipped with polar packs. Upon receipt, store it immediately at -20 to -70 °C
  • Stability & Storage
    Use a manual defrost freezer and avoid repeated freeze-thaw cycles.
    • 12 months from date of receipt, -20 to -70 °C as supplied.
    • 1 month, 2 to 8 °C under sterile conditions after reconstitution.
    • 6 months, -20 to -70 °C under sterile conditions after reconstitution.
Background: GDF-15

Growth Differentiation Factor 15 (GDF-15), also called Macrophage inhibitory cytokine-1 (MIC-1), placental transforming growth factor-beta, prostate-derived factor, and placental bone morphogenetic protein, is a divergent member of the transforming growth factor beta (TGF-beta ) superfamily. GDF-15 is highly expressed in placenta and is expressed at lower levels in kidney, pancreas, prostate and colon. It is also widely expressed in brain. Similar to other TGF-beta family proteins, GDF-15 is synthesized as a large precursor protein that is cleaved at the dibasic cleavage site (RXXR) to release the carboxy-terminal domain. The carboxy-terminal domain of GDF-15 contains the characteristic seven conserved cysteine residues necessary for the formation of the cysteine knot and the single interchain disulfide bond. Furthermore, the carboxy-terminal domain contains two additional cysteine residues that form a fourth intrachain disulfide bond. Biologically active GDF-15 is a disulfide-linked homodimer of the carboxy-terminal 112 amino acid residues. Mature human GDF-15 shares 66.1% and 68.7% amino acid sequence similarity with rat and mouse GDF-15, respectively, which are remarkably low homologies between species in TGF-beta superfamily. GDF-15 has been shown to have various functions, including inhibition of production of tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha ) from lipopolysaccharide-stimulated macrophages, induction of cartilage formation, early-stage endochonadal bone formation, and promotion of neuronal survival.

  • References:
    1. Bootcov, M.R. et al. (1997) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 94:11514.
    2. Böttner, M. et al. (1999) Gene 237:105.
    3. Fairlie, W.D. et al. (1998) J. Leukoc. Biol 65:2.
    4. Fairlie, W.D. et al. (2001) J B.C 20:16911.
    5. Bauskin, A.R. et al. (2000) EMBO J. 19:2212.
    6. Strelau, J. et al. (2000) J. Neurosci. 20:8597.
    7. Schober, A. et al. (2001) J. Comp. Neurol. 439:32.
  • Long Name:
    Growth Differentiation Factor 15
  • Entrez Gene IDs:
    9518 (Human); 23886 (Mouse); 29455 (Rat)
  • Alternate Names:
    GDF15; GDF-15; growth differentiation factor 15; growth/differentiation factor 15; Macrophage inhibitory cytokine 1; MIC-1; MIC-1NSAID-activated gene 1 protein; MIC1Prostate differentiation factor; NAG-1; NAG-1NSAID-regulated gene 1 protein; NSAID (nonsteroidal inflammatory drug)-activated protein 1; PDF; PDFGDF-15; PLAB; PLABNRG-1; Placental bone morphogenetic protein; Placental TGF-beta; PTGF-beta; PTGFBPTGF-beta
Related Research Areas
Citations:

R&D Systems personnel manually curate a database that contains references using R&D Systems products. The data collected includes not only links to publications in PubMed, but also provides information about sample types, species, and experimental conditions.

5 Citations: Showing 1 - 5
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Species
Applications
Sample Type
  1. Panel of three novel serum markers predicts liver stiffness and fibrosis stages in patients with chronic liver disease
    Authors: M Krawczyk, S Zimmermann, G Hess, R Holz, M Dauer, J Raedle, F Lammert, F Grünhage
    PLoS ONE, 2017;12(3):e0173506.
    Species: Human
    Sample Type: Serum
    Application: ELISA Development
  2. An autocrine/paracrine circuit of growth differentiation factor (GDF) 15 has a role for maintenance of breast cancer stem-like cells
    Authors: A Sasahara, K Tominaga, T Nishimura, M Yano, E Kiyokawa, M Noguchi, M Noguchi, H Kanauchi, T Ogawa, H Minato, K Tada, Y Seto, A Tojo, N Gotoh
    Oncotarget, 2017;8(15):24869-24881.
    Species: Human
    Sample Type: Whole Cells
    Application: Neut
  3. Growth Differentiation Factor-15-Induced Contractile Activity and Extracellular Matrix Production in Human Trabecular Meshwork Cells
    Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci, 2016;57(15):6482-6495.
    Species: Human
    Sample Type: Whole Tissue
    Application: IHC Paraffin-embedded
  4. Identification of macrophage inhibitory cytokine-1 in adipose tissue and its secretion as an adipokine by human adipocytes.
    Authors: Ding Q, Mracek T, Gonzalez-Muniesa P, Kos K, Wilding J, Trayhurn P, Bing C
    Endocrinology, 2009;150(4):1688-96.
    Species: Human
    Sample Type: Cell Lysates
    Application: WB
  5. Prognostic value of growth-differentiation factor-15 in patients with non-ST-elevation acute coronary syndrome.
    Authors: Wollert KC, Kempf T, Peter T, Olofsson S, James S, Johnston N, Lindahl B, Horn-Wichmann R, Brabant G, Simoons ML, Armstrong PW, Califf RM, Drexler H, Wallentin L
    Circulation, 2007;115(8):962-71.
    Species: Human
    Sample Type: Serum
    Application: ELISA Development
Isotype Controls
Description Application Cat# Citations Images  

Normal Goat IgG Control

Ctrl AB-108-C 191  
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Secondary Antibodies
Description Application Cat# Citations Images  

Goat IgG HRP-conjugated Antibody

WB, Simple Western HAF109 19  
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Goat IgG HRP-conjugated Antibody

WB HAF017 15  
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Goat IgG (H+L) PE-conjugated Antibody

Flow F0107 4  
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Donkey Anti-Goat IgG NorthernLights™ NL557-conjugated Antibody

Flow, IHC, ICC NL001 9
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Donkey Anti-Goat IgG NorthernLights™ NL493-conjugated Antibody

Flow, IHC, ICC NL003 5
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Goat IgG (H+L) APC-conjugated Antibody

Flow F0108 6  
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Goat IgG Horseradish Peroxidase-conjugated Antibody

WB HAF019 6  
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Donkey Anti-Goat IgG Antibody

WB AF109 6
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Donkey Anti-Goat IgG Biotinylated Antibody

WB BAF109 3
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Goat IgG VisUCyte HRP Polymer

IHC VC004  
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Goat IgG (H+L) Fluorescein-conjugated Antibody

Flow F0109 2  
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Donkey Anti-Goat IgG NorthernLights™ NL637-conjugated Antibody

Flow, IHC, ICC NL002
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Rabbit Anti-Goat IgG (H+L) Affinity Purified PAb, X Absorbed

WB, ELISA R-401-C-ABS
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Chicken Anti-Goat IgG Biotinylated Antibody

WB BAF019
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Rabbit Anti-Goat IgG Biotinylated Antibody

WB BAF017
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Donkey Anti-Goat IgG (H+L) PerCP-conjugated Antibody

Flow F0124
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