|Detection of Human GDF‑15 by Western Blot. Western blot shows lysate of HT1080 human fibrosarcoma cell line. PVDF membrane was probed with 0.5 µg/mL of Goat Anti-Human GDF‑15 Antigen Affinity-purified Polyclonal Antibody (Catalog # AF957) followed by HRP-conjugated Anti-Goat IgG Secondary Antibody (Catalog # HAF017). A specific band was detected for GDF‑15 at approximately 35 kDa (as indicated). This experiment was conducted under reducing conditions and using Immunoblot Buffer Group 1.|
Detection of Human GDF‑15 by Simple WesternTM. Simple Western lane view shows lysate of HT1080 human fibrosarcoma cell line, loaded at 0.2 mg/mL. A specific band was detected for GDF‑15 at approximately 47 kDa (as indicated) using 5 µg/mL of Goat Anti-Human GDF‑15 Antigen Affinity-purified Polyclonal Antibody (Catalog # AF957) followed by 1:50 dilution of HRP-conjugated Anti-Goat IgG Secondary Antibody (Catalog # HAF109). This experiment was conducted under reducing conditions and using the |
12-230 kDa separation system.
Growth Differentiation Factor 15 (GDF-15), also called Macrophage inhibitory cytokine-1 (MIC-1), placental transforming growth factor-beta, prostate-derived factor, and placental bone morphogenetic protein, is a divergent member of the transforming growth factor beta (TGF-beta ) superfamily. GDF-15 is highly expressed in placenta and is expressed at lower levels in kidney, pancreas, prostate and colon. It is also widely expressed in brain. Similar to other TGF-beta family proteins, GDF-15 is synthesized as a large precursor protein that is cleaved at the dibasic cleavage site (RXXR) to release the carboxy-terminal domain. The carboxy-terminal domain of GDF-15 contains the characteristic seven conserved cysteine residues necessary for the formation of the cysteine knot and the single interchain disulfide bond. Furthermore, the carboxy-terminal domain contains two additional cysteine residues that form a fourth intrachain disulfide bond. Biologically active GDF-15 is a disulfide-linked homodimer of the carboxy-terminal 112 amino acid residues. Mature human GDF-15 shares 66.1% and 68.7% amino acid sequence similarity with rat and mouse GDF-15, respectively, which are remarkably low homologies between species in TGF-beta superfamily. GDF-15 has been shown to have various functions, including inhibition of production of tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha ) from lipopolysaccharide-stimulated macrophages, induction of cartilage formation, early-stage endochonadal bone formation, and promotion of neuronal survival.
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