|Detection of Human IL‑33 by Western Blot. Western blot shows lysates of HEK293 human embryonic kidney cell line either mock transfected or transfected with human IL-33. PVDF membrane was probed with 1 µg/mL of Recombinant Goat Anti-Human IL‑33 Monoclonal Antibody (Catalog # MAB36254) followed by HRP-conjugated Anti-Goat IgG Secondary Antibody (Catalog # HAF017). A specific band was detected for IL‑33 at approximately 30 kDa (as indicated). This experiment was conducted under reducing conditions and using Immunoblot Buffer Group 1.|
|IL‑33 in Human Tonsil. IL‑33 was detected in immersion fixed paraffin-embedded sections of human tonsil using Recombinant Goat Anti-Human IL‑33 Monoclonal Antibody (Catalog # MAB36254) at 0.3 µg/mL overnight at 4 °C. Tissue was stained using the Anti-Goat HRP-DAB Cell & Tissue Staining Kit (brown; Catalog # CTS008) and counterstained with hematoxylin (blue). Specific staining was localized to nuclei. View our protocol for Chromogenic IHC Staining of Paraffin-embedded Tissue Sections.|
Cell Proliferation Induced by IL-33 and Neutralization by Human IL-33 Antibody. In the presence of sub-optimal amounts of Hamster Anti-Mouse CD3 epsilon Monoclonal Antibody (Catalog # MAB484), Recombinant Human IL-33 (Catalog # 3625-IL) stimulates proliferation in the D10.G4.1 mouse helper T cell line in a dose-dependent manner (orange line), as measured by Resazurin (Catalog # AR002). Under these conditions, proliferation elicited by Recombinant Human IL-33 (12 ng/mL) is neutralized (green line) by increasing concentrations of Goat Anti-Human IL-33 Monoclonal Antibody (Catalog # MAB36254). The ND50 is typically|
IL-33, also known as NF-HEV and DVS 27, is a 30 kDa proinflammatory protein that may also regulate gene transcription (1‑3). DVS 27 was identifed as a gene that is up‑regulated in vasospastic cerebral arteries (1). NF-HEV was described as a nuclear factor that is preferentially expressed in the endothelial cells of high endothelial venules relative to endothelial cells from other tissues (2). IL-33 was identified based on sequence and structural homology with IL-1 family cytokines (3). DVS 27, NF-HEV, and IL-33 share 100% amino acid sequence identity. IL-33 is constitutively expressed in smooth muscle and airway epithelia. It is up‑regulated in arterial smooth muscle, dermal fibroblasts, and keratinocytes following IL-1 alpha or IL-1 beta stimulation (1, 3). Similar to IL-1, IL-33 can be cleaved in vitro by caspase-1, generating an N-terminal fragment that is slightly shorter than the C-terminal fragment (3, 4). The N-terminal portion of full length IL-33 contains a predicted bipartite nuclear localization sequence and a homeodomain-like helix-turn-helix DNA binding domain. By immunofluorescence, full length IL-33 localizes to the nucleus in HUVECs and transfectants (2). The C-terminal fragment, corresponding to mature IL-33, binds and triggers signaling through mast cell IL-1 R4/ST2L, a longtime orphan receptor involved in the augmentation of Th2 cell responses (3, 5-7). A ternary signaling complex is formed by the subsequent association of IL-33 and ST2L with IL-1R AcP (8). Stimulation of Th2 polarized lymphocytes with mature IL-33 in vitro induces IL-5 and IL-13 secretion (3). In vivo administration of mature IL-33 promotes increased production of IL-5, IL-13, IgE, and IgA, as well as splenomegaly and inflammatory infiltration of mucosal tissues (3). Full length and mature human IL-33 share 52‑58% aa sequence identity with mouse and rat IL-33. Human IL-33 shares less than 20% aa sequence identity with other IL-1 family proteins.
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