Human LAP (TGF-beta 1) Antibody

Catalog # Availability Size / Price Qty
AB-246-NA
TGF-beta 1 in Human PBMCs.
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Human LAP (TGF-beta 1) Antibody Summary

Species Reactivity
Human
Specificity
Detects human LAP in direct ELISAs and Western blots. In direct ELISAs and Western blots, this antibody is specific for the LAP derived from the TGF-beta 1 precursor but does not react with LAP from the TGF-beta 2 precursor.
Source
Polyclonal Goat IgG
Purification
Protein A or G purified
Immunogen
S. frugiperda insect ovarian cell line Sf 21-derived recombinant human LAP (TGF‑ beta 1) and Chinese hamster ovary cell line CHO-derived recombinant human LAP (TGF‑ beta 1)
Leu30-Ser390
Accession # P01137
Formulation
Lyophilized from a 0.2 μm filtered solution in PBS and NaCl with Trehalose.
Endotoxin Level
<0.10 EU per 1 μg of the antibody by the LAL method.
Label
Unconjugated

Applications

Recommended Concentration
Sample
Western Blot
1 µg/mL
Recombinant Human LAP TGF-beta 1 (Catalog # 246-LP)
Immunohistochemistry
5-15 µg/mL
See below
Immunocytochemistry
5-15 µg/mL
See below
Neutralization
Measured by its ability to neutralize LAP TGF‑ beta 1 inhibition of TGF‑ beta 1 growth inhibition in the HT‑2 mouse T cell line. Tsang, M. et al. (1995) Cytokine 7:389. The Neutralization Dose (ND50) is typically 15-30 µg/mL in the presence of 125 ng/mL Recombinant Human LAP TGF‑ beta 1 and 0.25 ng/mL TGF‑ beta 1.

Please Note: Optimal dilutions should be determined by each laboratory for each application. General Protocols are available in the Technical Information section on our website.

Data Examples

Immunocytochemistry TGF-beta 1 in Human PBMCs. View Larger

TGF-beta 1 in Human PBMCs. TGF-beta 1 was detected in immersion fixed human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) using Goat Anti-Human LAP TGF-beta 1 Polyclonal Antibody (Catalog # AB-246-NA) at 10 µg/mL for 3 hours at room temperature. Cells were stained using the NorthernLights™ 557-conjugated Anti-Goat IgG Secondary Antibody (yellow; Catalog # NL001) and counter­stained with DAPI (blue).View our protocol for Fluorescent ICC Staining of Non-adherent Cells.

Immunohistochemistry LAP (TGF-beta 1) in Human Prostate Cancer Tissue. View Larger

LAP (TGF-beta 1) in Human Prostate Cancer Tissue. LAP (TGF-beta 1) was detected in immersion fixed paraffin-embedded sections of human prostate cancer tissue using Goat Anti-Human LAP (TGF-beta 1) Antigen Affinity-purified Polyclonal Antibody (Catalog # AF-246-NA) at 10 µg/mL overnight at 4 °C. Tissue was stained using the Anti-Goat HRP-DAB Cell & Tissue Staining Kit (brown; Catalog # CTS008) and counterstained with hematoxylin (blue). Specific staining was localized to cytoplasm in epithelial cells. View our protocol for Chromogenic IHC Staining of Paraffin-embedded Tissue Sections.

Neutralization LAP TGF‑ beta 1 Inhibition of TGF‑ beta 1 Activity and Neutralization by Human LAP TGF‑ beta 1 Antibody. View Larger

LAP TGF‑ beta 1 Inhibition of TGF‑ beta 1 Activity and Neutralization by Human LAP TGF‑ beta 1 Antibody. Recombinant Human LAP TGF‑ beta 1 (Catalog # 246-LP) inhibits Recombinant Human TGF‑ beta 1 (Catalog # 240‑B) growth inhibition activity in the HT‑2 mouse T cell line in a dose-dependent manner (orange line). Inhibition of Recombinant Human TGF‑ beta 1 (0.25 ng/mL) activity elicited by Recombinant Human LAP TGF‑ beta 1 (125 ng/mL) is neutral­ized (green line) by increasing concentrations of Goat Anti-Human LAP TGF‑ beta 1 Polyclonal Antibody (Catalog # AB-246-NA). The ND50 is typically 15‑30 µg/mL.

Reconstitution Calculator

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Preparation and Storage

Reconstitution
Reconstitute at 1 mg/mL in sterile PBS.
Reconstitution Buffer Available
Reconstitution Buffer 1 (PBS)
Catalog #
Availability
Size / Price
Qty
RB01
Shipping
The product is shipped at ambient temperature. Upon receipt, store it immediately at the temperature recommended below.
Stability & Storage
Use a manual defrost freezer and avoid repeated freeze-thaw cycles.
  • 12 months from date of receipt, -20 to -70 °C as supplied.
  • 1 month, 2 to 8 °C under sterile conditions after reconstitution.
  • 6 months, -20 to -70 °C under sterile conditions after reconstitution.

Background: LAP (TGF-beta 1)

TGF-  beta 1 (transforming growth factor beta 1) and the closely related TGF-beta 2 and -beta 3 are members of the large TGF-beta  superfamily. TGF-  beta proteins are highly pleiotropic cytokines that regulate processes such as immune function, proliferation and epithelial-mesenchymal transition (1‑3). Human TGF-beta 1 cDNA encodes a 390 amino acid (aa) precursor that contains a 29 aa signal peptide and a 361 aa proprotein (4). A furin-like convertase processes the proprotein within the trans-Golgi to generate an N-terminal 249 aa (aa 30-278) latency-associated peptide (LAP) and a C-terminal 112 aa (aa 279-390) mature TGF-  beta 1 (4‑6). Disulfide-linked homodimers of LAP and TGF-beta 1 remain non-covalently associated after secretion, forming the small latent TGF-beta 1 complex (4‑8). Purified LAP is also capable of associating with active TGF-beta with high affinity, and can neutralize TGF-beta activity (9). Covalent linkage of LAP to one of three latent TGF-beta binding proteins (LTBPs) creates a large latent complex that may interact with the extracellular matrix (5‑7). TGF-beta activation from latency is controlled both spatially and temporally, by multiple pathways that include actions of proteases such as plasmin and MMP9, and/or by thrombospondin 1 or selected integrins (5, 8). The LAP portion of human TGF-beta 1 shares 91%, 92%, 85%, 86% and 88% aa identity with porcine, canine, mouse, rat and equine TGF-beta 1 LAP, respectively, while mature human TGF-beta 1 portion shares 100% aa identity with porcine, canine and bovine TGF-beta 1, and 99% aa identity with mouse, rat and equine TGF-beta 1. Although different isoforms of TGF-beta are naturally associated with their own distinct LAPs, the TGF-beta 1 LAP is capable of complexing with, and inactivating, all other human TGF-beta isoforms and those of most other species (9). Mutations within the LAP are associated with Camurati-Engelmann disease, a rare sclerosing bone dysplasia characterized by inappropriate presence of active TGF-beta 1 (10).

References
  1. Dunker, N. & K. Krieglstein (2000) Eur. J. Biochem. 267:6982.
  2. Wahl, S.M. (2006) Immunol. Rev. 213:213.
  3. Chang, H. et al. (2002) Endocr. Rev. 23:787.
  4. Derynck, R. et al. (1985) Nature 316:701.
  5. Dabovic, B. and D.B. Rifkin (2008) “TGF-beta Bioavailability” in The TGF-beta Family. Derynck, R. and K. Miyazono (eds): Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press, p. 179.
  6. Brunner, A.M. et al. (1989) J. Biol. Chem. 264:13660.
  7. Miyazono, K. et al. (1991) EMBO J. 10:1091.
  8. Oklu, R. and R. Hesketh (2000) Biochem. J. 352:601.
  9. Miller, D.M. et al. (1992) Mol. Endocrinol. 6:694.
  10. Janssens, K. et al. (2003) J. Biol. Chem. 278:7718.
Long Name
Latency-associated Peptide
Entrez Gene IDs
7040 (Human)
Alternate Names
CED; DPD1; LAP (TGFbeta 1); LAP (TGF-beta 1); LAP; TGFB; TGFB1; TGFbeta; transforming growth factor beta 1

Product Datasheets

Citations for Human LAP (TGF-beta 1) Antibody

R&D Systems personnel manually curate a database that contains references using R&D Systems products. The data collected includes not only links to publications in PubMed, but also provides information about sample types, species, and experimental conditions.

4 Citations: Showing 1 - 4
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  1. Identification of genetic loci that control mammary tumor susceptibility through the host microenvironment.
    Authors: Zhang P, Lo A, Huang Y, Huang G, Liang G, Mott J, Karpen G, Blakely E, Bissell M, Barcellos-Hoff M, Snijders A, Mao J
    Sci Rep, 2015;5(0):8919.
    Species: Mouse
    Sample Types: Whole Tissue
    Applications: IHC
  2. Knockdown of prolyl-4-hydroxylase domain 2 inhibits tumor growth of human breast cancer MDA-MB-231 cells by affecting TGF-beta1 processing.
    Authors: Wottawa M, Leisering P, Ahlen M, Schnelle M, Vogel S, Malz C, Bordoli M, Camenisch G, Hesse A, Napp J, Alves F, Kristiansen G, Farhat K, Katschinski D
    Int J Cancer, 2014;132(12):2787-98.
    Species: Human
    Sample Types: Cell Lysates
    Applications: WB
  3. Transglutaminase 2 cross-linking activity is linked to invadopodia formation and cartilage breakdown in arthritis.
    Authors: Lauzier A, Charbonneau M, Paquette M, Harper K, Dubois CM
    Arthritis Res. Ther., 2012;14(4):R159.
    Species: Human
    Sample Types: Cell Lysates
    Applications: WB
  4. Tumor metastasis in an orthotopic murine model of head and neck cancer: possible role of TGF-beta 1 secreted by the tumor cells.
    Authors: Dasgupta S, Bhattacharya-Chatterjee M, O&amp;amp;apos;Malley BW, Chatterjee SK
    J. Cell. Biochem., 2006;97(5):1036-51.
    Species: Mouse
    Sample Types: Whole Tissue
    Applications: IHC Frozen

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