Detects human LAP in direct ELISAs and Western blots. In direct ELISAs and Western blots, this antibody is specific for the LAP derived from the TGF-beta 1 precursor but does not react with LAP from the TGF-beta 2 precursor.
Polyclonal Goat IgG
Protein A or G purified
S. frugiperda insect ovarian cell line Sf 21-derived recombinant human LAP (TGF‑ beta 1) and Chinese hamster ovary cell line CHO-derived recombinant human LAP (TGF‑ beta 1) Leu30-Ser390 Accession # P01137
Lyophilized from a 0.2 μm filtered solution in PBS and NaCl with Trehalose.
<0.10 EU per 1 μg of the antibody by the LAL method.
Recombinant Human LAP TGF-beta 1 (Catalog # 246-LP)
Measured by its ability to neutralize LAP TGF‑ beta 1 inhibition of TGF‑ beta 1 growth inhibition in the HT‑2 mouse T cell line. Tsang, M. et al. (1995) Cytokine 7:389. The Neutralization Dose (ND50) is typically 15-30 µg/mL in the presence of 125 ng/mL Recombinant Human LAP TGF‑ beta 1 and 0.25 ng/mL TGF‑ beta 1.
Please Note: Optimal dilutions should be determined by each laboratory for each application.
are available in the Technical Information section on our website.
TGF-beta 1 in Human PBMCs.
TGF-beta 1 was detected in immersion fixed human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) using Goat Anti-Human LAP TGF-beta 1 Polyclonal Antibody (Catalog # AB-246-NA) at 10 µg/mL for 3 hours at room temperature. Cells were stained using the NorthernLights™ 557-conjugated Anti-Goat IgG Secondary Antibody (yellow; Catalog # NL001) and counterstained with DAPI (blue).View our protocol for Fluorescent ICC Staining of Non-adherent Cells.
LAP (TGF-beta 1) in Human Prostate Cancer Tissue.
LAP (TGF-beta 1) was detected in immersion fixed paraffin-embedded sections of human prostate cancer tissue using Goat Anti-Human LAP (TGF-beta 1) Antigen Affinity-purified Polyclonal Antibody (Catalog # AF-246-NA) at 10 µg/mL overnight at 4 °C. Tissue was stained using the Anti-Goat HRP-DAB Cell & Tissue Staining Kit (brown; Catalog # CTS008) and counterstained with hematoxylin (blue). Specific staining was localized to cytoplasm in epithelial cells. View our protocol for Chromogenic IHC Staining of Paraffin-embedded Tissue Sections.
LAP TGF‑ beta 1 Inhibition of TGF‑ beta 1 Activity and Neutralization by Human LAP TGF‑ beta 1 Antibody.
Recombinant Human LAP TGF‑ beta 1 (Catalog # 246-LP) inhibits Recombinant Human TGF‑ beta 1 (Catalog # 240‑B) growth inhibition activity in the HT‑2 mouse T cell line in a dose-dependent manner (orange line). Inhibition of Recombinant Human TGF‑ beta 1 (0.25 ng/mL) activity elicited by Recombinant Human LAP TGF‑ beta 1 (125 ng/mL) is neutralized (green line) by increasing concentrations of Goat Anti-Human LAP TGF‑ beta 1 Polyclonal Antibody (Catalog # AB-246-NA). The ND50 is typically 15‑30 µg/mL.
Preparation and Storage
Reconstitute at 1 mg/mL in sterile PBS.
Reconstitution Buffer Available
The product is shipped at ambient temperature. Upon receipt, store it immediately at the temperature recommended below.
Stability & Storage
Use a manual defrost freezer and avoid repeated freeze-thaw cycles.
12 months from date of receipt, -20 to -70 °C as supplied.
1 month, 2 to 8 °C under sterile conditions after reconstitution.
6 months, -20 to -70 °C under sterile conditions after reconstitution.
Background: LAP (TGF-beta 1)
TGF- beta 1 (transforming growth factor beta 1) and the closely related TGF-beta 2 and -beta 3 are members of the large TGF-beta superfamily. TGF- beta proteins are highly pleiotropic cytokines that regulate processes such as immune function, proliferation and epithelial-mesenchymal transition (1‑3). Human TGF-beta 1 cDNA encodes a 390 amino acid (aa) precursor that contains a 29 aa signal peptide and a 361 aa proprotein (4). A furin-like convertase processes the proprotein within the trans-Golgi to generate an N-terminal 249 aa (aa 30-278) latency-associated peptide (LAP) and a C-terminal 112 aa (aa 279-390) mature TGF- beta 1 (4‑6). Disulfide-linked homodimers of LAP and TGF-beta 1 remain non-covalently associated after secretion, forming the small latent TGF-beta 1 complex (4‑8). Purified LAP is also capable of associating with active TGF-beta with high affinity, and can neutralize TGF-beta activity (9). Covalent linkage of LAP to one of three latent TGF-beta binding proteins (LTBPs) creates a large latent complex that may interact with the extracellular matrix (5‑7). TGF-beta activation from latency is controlled both spatially and temporally, by multiple pathways that include actions of proteases such as plasmin and MMP9, and/or by thrombospondin 1 or selected integrins (5, 8). The LAP portion of human TGF-beta 1 shares 91%, 92%, 85%, 86% and 88% aa identity with porcine, canine, mouse, rat and equine TGF-beta 1 LAP, respectively, while mature human TGF-beta 1 portion shares 100% aa identity with porcine, canine and bovine TGF-beta 1, and 99% aa identity with mouse, rat and equine TGF-beta 1. Although different isoforms of TGF-beta are naturally associated with their own distinct LAPs, the TGF-beta 1 LAP is capable of complexing with, and inactivating, all other human TGF-beta isoforms and those of most other species (9). Mutations within the LAP are associated with Camurati-Engelmann disease, a rare sclerosing bone dysplasia characterized by inappropriate presence of active TGF-beta 1 (10).
Dunker, N. & K. Krieglstein (2000) Eur. J. Biochem. 267:6982.
Wahl, S.M. (2006) Immunol. Rev. 213:213.
Chang, H. et al. (2002) Endocr. Rev. 23:787.
Derynck, R. et al. (1985) Nature 316:701.
Dabovic, B. and D.B. Rifkin (2008) “TGF-beta Bioavailability” in The TGF-beta Family. Derynck, R. and K. Miyazono (eds): Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press, p. 179.
Brunner, A.M. et al. (1989) J. Biol. Chem. 264:13660.
Miyazono, K. et al. (1991) EMBO J. 10:1091.
Oklu, R. and R. Hesketh (2000) Biochem. J. 352:601.
Miller, D.M. et al. (1992) Mol. Endocrinol. 6:694.
Janssens, K. et al. (2003) J. Biol. Chem. 278:7718.
R&D Systems personnel manually curate a database that contains references using R&D Systems products.
The data collected includes not only links to publications in PubMed,
but also provides information about sample types, species, and experimental conditions.
Submit a review and receive a $25US/€18/£15/$25CAN amazon gift card if you include an image - $10US/€7/£6/$10CAN Amazon card for reviews without an image. Limited to verified customers in USA, Canada and Europe.