Human LILRB2/CD85d/ILT4 Antibody Summary
35% cross-reactivity with recombinant human (rh) ILT2 is observed and 5% cross-reactivity with rhILT5 is observed.
Accession # Q8N423
Please Note: Optimal dilutions should be determined by each laboratory for each application. General Protocols are available in the Technical Information section on our website.
LILRB2/CD85d/ILT4 in Human Lung. LILRB2/CD85d/ILT4 was detected in immersion fixed paraffin-embedded sections of human lung using Goat Anti-Human LILRB2/CD85d/ILT4 Antigen Affinity-purified Polyclonal Antibody (Catalog # AF2078) at 1 µg/mL for 1 hour at room temperature followed by incubation with the Anti-Goat IgG VisUCyte™ HRP Polymer Antibody (Catalog # VC004). Tissue was stained using DAB (brown) and counterstained with hematoxylin (blue). Specific staining was localized to macrophages. View our protocol for IHC Staining with VisUCyte HRP Polymer Detection Reagents.
Cell Adhesion Mediated by LILRB2/CD85d/ILT4 and Neutralization by Human LILRB2/CD85d/ILT4 Antibody. Recombinant Human LILRB2/CD85d/ILT4 Fc Chimera (Catalog # 2078-T4), immobilized onto a microplate, supports the adhesion of the HSB2 human peripheral blood acute lymphoblastic leukemia cell line in a dose-dependent manner (orange line). Adhesion elicited by Recombinant Human LILRB2/CD85d/ILT4 Fc Chimera (35 µg/mL) is neutralized (green line) by increasing concentrations of Goat Anti-Human LILRB2/CD85d/ILT4 Antigen Affinity-purified Polyclonal Antibody (Catalog # AF2078). The ND50 is typically 0.3-1.0 µg/mL.
Preparation and Storage
- 12 months from date of receipt, -20 to -70 °C as supplied.
- 1 month, 2 to 8 °C under sterile conditions after reconstitution.
- 6 months, -20 to -70 °C under sterile conditions after reconstitution.
The immunoglobulin-like transcript (ILT) comprise a family of activating and inhibitory type immunoreceptors whose genes are located in the same locus that encodes killer cell Ig-like receptors (KIR) (1‑3). ILT4, also known as LIR-2 and LILRB2, is a type I transmembrane protein expressed primarily on monocytes and dendritic cells (DC) (4). Human ILT4 is produced as a 598 amino acid (aa) precursor including a 21 aa signal sequence, a 440 aa extracellular domain (ECD), a 21 aa transmembrane segment, and a 116 aa cytoplasmic domain. The ECD contains four Ig-like domains, and the cytoplasmic domain contains three immunoreceptor tyrosine-based inhibitory motifs (ITIM) (5). The ECD of human ILT4 shares 76% aa identity with chimpanzee ILT4 and 74%, 81%, 33%, 52%, 77%, 61%, and 64% aa identity with human ILT1, 2, 3, 5, 6, 7, and 8, respectively. ILT4 binds to classical MHC I proteins as well as the non-classical HLA-G1 and HLA-F molecules (5‑9). It competes with CD8 alpha for MHC I binding but does not compete with KIR2DL1 (7). Ligation of ILT4 induces Tyr phosphorylation within its cytoplasmic ITIMs, a requirement for association with SHP-1 (4, 6). Activation of ILT4 inhibits signaling through Fc gamma RI (4) and Fc epsilon RI (6) and causes DC to become tolerogenic by down-regulation of
co-stimulatory molecules (10, 11). ILT4 mediates tolerogenic DC-induced CD4+ T cell energy in vitro and in vivo (10‑12).
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- Chang, C.C. et al. (2002) Nat. Immunol. 3:237.
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- Manavalan, J.S. et al. (2003) Transpl. Immunol. 11:245.
Citations for Human LILRB2/CD85d/ILT4 Antibody
R&D Systems personnel manually curate a database that contains references using R&D Systems products. The data collected includes not only links to publications in PubMed, but also provides information about sample types, species, and experimental conditions.
Citations: Showing 1 - 2
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The immune-checkpoint HLA-G/ILT4 is involved in the regulation of VEGF expression in clear cell renal cell carcinoma
Authors: M García, MB Palma, J Verine, S Miriuka, AM Inda, AL Errecalde, F Desgrandch, ED Carosella, D Tronik-Le
BMC Cancer, 2020;20(1):624.
Sample Types: Whole Tissue
IL-10 inhibits endothelium-dependent T cell costimulation by up-regulation of ILT3/4 in human vascular endothelial cells.
Authors: Gleissner CA, Zastrow A, Klingenberg R, Kluger MS, Konstandin M, Celik S, Haemmerling S, Shankar V, Giese T, Katus HA, Dengler TJ
Eur. J. Immunol., 2007;37(1):177-92.
Sample Types: Whole Cells
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