Detects human, mouse and rat Activin A in direct ELISAs and Western blots.
Polyclonal Goat IgG
Chinese hamster ovary cell line CHO-derived recombinant human Activin A
Lyophilized from a 0.2 μm filtered solution in PBS with Trehalose. *Small pack size (SP) is supplied as a 0.2 µm filtered solution in PBS.
<0.10 EU per 1 μg of the antibody by the LAL method.
Recombinant Human/Mouse/Rat Activin A (Catalog # 338-AC)
Measured by its ability to neutralize Activin A-induced hemoglobin expression in the K562 human chronic myelogenous leukemia cell line. Schwall, R. H. et al. (1991) Method Enzymol. 198:340. The Neutralization Dose (ND50) is typically 2-6 µg/mL in the presence of 7.5 ng/mL Recombinant Human/Mouse/Rat Activin A.
Please Note: Optimal dilutions should be determined by each laboratory for each application. General Protocols are available in the Technical Information section on our website.
Hemoglobin Expression Induced by Activin A and Neutralization by Human/Mouse/Rat Activin A Antibody. Recombinant Human/Mouse/Rat Activin A (Catalog # 338-AC) increases hemoglobin expression in the K562 human chronic myelogenous leukemia cell line in a dose-dependent manner (orange line), as measured by the psuedoperoxidase assay. Hemoglobin Expression elicited by Recombinant Human/Mouse/Rat Activin A (7.5 ng/mL) is neutralized (green line) by increasing concentrations of Goat Anti-Human/Mouse/Rat Activin A beta A subunit Antigen Affinity-purified Polyclonal Antibody (Catalog # AF338). The ND50 is typically 2‑6 µg/mL.
Activin A in Human Breast Cancer Tissue. Activin A was detected in immersion fixed paraffin-embedded sections of human breast cancer tissue using 5 µg/mL Goat Anti-Human/Mouse/Rat Activin A beta A Subunit Antigen Affinity-purified Polyclonal Antibody (Catalog # AF338) overnight at 4 °C. Tissue was stained (red) and counterstained with hematoxylin (blue). View our protocol for Chromogenic IHC Staining of Paraffin-embedded Tissue Sections.
Preparation and Storage
Reconstitute at 0.2 mg/mL in sterile PBS.
The product is shipped at ambient temperature. Upon receipt, store it immediately at the temperature recommended below. *Small pack size (SP) is shipped with polar packs. Upon receipt, store it immediately at -20 to -70 °C
Stability & Storage
Use a manual defrost freezer and avoid repeated freeze-thaw cycles.
12 months from date of receipt, -20 to -70 °C as supplied.
1 month, 2 to 8 °C under sterile conditions after reconstitution.
6 months, -20 to -70 °C under sterile conditions after reconstitution.
Background: Activin A
Activin and Inhibin are members of the TGF-beta superfamily of cytokines and are involved in a wide range of biological processes including tissue morphogenesis and repair, fibrosis, inflammation, neural development, hematopoiesis, reproductive system function, and carcinogenesis (1‑7). Activin and Inhibin are produced as precursor proteins. Their amino terminal propeptides are proteolytically cleaved and facilitate formation of disulfide-linked dimers of the bioactive proteins (8, 9). Activins are nonglycosylated homodimers or heterodimers of various beta subunits ( beta A, beta B, beta C, and beta E in mammals), while Inhibins are heterodimers of a unique alpha subunit and one of the beta subunits. Activin A is a widely expressed homodimer of two beta A chains. The beta A subunit can also heterodimerize with a beta B or beta C subunit to form Activin AB and Activin AC, respectively (10). The 14 kDa mature human beta A chain shares 100% amino acid sequence identity with bovine, feline, mouse, porcine, and rat beta A. Activin A exerts its biological activities by binding to the type 2 serine/threonine kinase Activin RIIA which then noncovalently associates with the type 1 serine/threonine kinase Activin RIB/ALK-4 (7, 11). Signaling through this receptor complex leads to Smad activation and regulation of activin-responsive gene transcription (7, 11). The bioactivity of Activin A is regulated by a variety of mechanisms (11). BAMBI, Betaglycan, and Cripto are cell-associated molecules that function as decoy receptors or limit the ability of Activin A to induce receptor complex assembly (12‑14). The intracellular formation of Activin A can be prevented by the incorporation of the beta A subunit into Activin AC or Inhibin A (3, 10). And the bioavailability of Activin A is restricted by its incorporation into inactive complexes with alpha 2-Macroglobulin, Follistatin, and FLRG (15, 16).
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Schneyer, A. et al. (2003) Endocrinology 144:1671.
R&D Systems personnel manually curate a database that contains references using R&D Systems products.
The data collected includes not only links to publications in PubMed,
but also provides information about sample types, species, and experimental conditions.
Have you used Human/Mouse/Rat Activin A beta A subunit Antibody?
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