|Cell Proliferation Induced by NT‑4 and Neutralization by Human NT‑4 Antibody. Recombinant Human NT‑4 (Catalog # 268-N4) stimulates proliferation in BaF‑TrKB‑BD mouse pro‑B cell line transfected with TrkB in a dose-dependent manner (orange line). Proliferation elicited by Recombinant Human NT‑4 (40 ng/mL) is neutralized (green line) by increasing concentrations of Goat Anti-Human NT‑4 Antigen Affinity-purified Polyclonal Antibody (Catalog # AF-268-NA). The ND50 is typically 0.4‑2 µg/mL.|
Neurotrophin-4 (NT-4), also known as NT-5, is a member of the NGF family of neuronal and epithelial growth factors. Neurotrophins have six conserved cysteine residues that are involved in the formation of three disulfide bonds (1‑3). The human NT-4 cDNA encodes a 210 amino acid (aa) precursor that includes a 24 aa signal sequence, a 56 aa propeptide, and a 130 aa mature protein (4, 5). NT‑4 is synthesized as a 28 kDa prepropeptide that is proteolytically processed to generate the mature protein. Mature human NT-4 shares 48‑52% aa sequence identity with human beta-NGF, BDNF, and NT-3. It shares 91% and 95% aa sequence identity with mouse and rat NT-4/5, respectively. The mature protein is secreted as a homodimer and can also form heterodimers with BDNF or NT-3 (6). NT-4 binds and induces receptor dimerization and activation of TrkB (4, 7). NT-4 promotes the development and survival of selected peripheral and CNS neurons (8‑10). BDNF, which also activates TrkB, overlaps with many but not all NT-4 functions, a distinction that is likely due to differences in expression patterns (8‑10). NT-4 induced TrkB signaling augments NMDA receptor activity and increases neuronal sensitivity to excitotoxic cell death (11). It also promotes the proliferation of keratinocytes and accelerates hair follicle regression during the follicular cycle (12, 13). NT-4 is secreted by activated T cells and granulocytes at sites of inflammation where it contributes to tissue regeneration (14‑16).
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