IGF Ligands

Insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-I (also known as somatomedin C and somatomedin A) and IGF-II (multiplication stimulating activity or MSA) belong to the family of insulin-like growth factors that are structurally homologous to proinsulin. Mature IGF-I and IGF-II share approximately 70% sequence identity. Both IGF-I and IGF-II are expressed in many tissues and cell types and may have autocrine, paracrine and endocrine functions. Mature IGF-I and IGF-II are highly conserved between the human, bovine and porcine proteins (100% identity), and exhibit cross-species activity.

The IGFL (insulin-like growth factor-like) family includes four small (~11 kDa), probably secreted family members in humans and one in mouse. This family shares A and B chain cysteine motifs with the IGF superfamily, and has an additional cysteine motif within an uncleaved region corresponding to the C peptide of the IGF family.