Synaptic Neurotransmission Pathways: GABAergic Inhibition

Interactive Pathways

Presynaptic
Neuron
Presynaptic
Neuron
SNAT1
SNAT2
SNAT1
SNAT2
Glutamine
Glutamine
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Glutaminase
Glutaminase
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Glutamate
Glutamate
EAAT1
EAAT4
EAAT1
EAAT4
Glutamate
Glutamate
Plasma membrane
GABA
transporters
Plasma membrane
GABA
transporters
GAD
GAD
GABA
GABA
Vesicular
GABA
transporter
Vesicular
GABA
transporter
GABA
GABA
mGluR7
mGluR7
Gi/o
Gi/o
mGluR2/3
mGluR2/3
Gi/o
Gi/o
GABA-B-R1a/2
GABA-B-R1a/2
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cAMP
cAMP
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Cl-
Cl-

Hyperpolarization

Hyperpolarization

Postsynaptic
Neuron
Postsynaptic
Neuron
GABA-A R
GABA-A R
GABA-B-R1b/2
GABA-B-R1b/2
Gi/o
Gi/o
Ca2+
Ca2+
K+
K+
mGluR3
mGluR3
Glutamine
Glutamine
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SNAT3
SNAT5
SNAT3
SNAT5
mGluR5
mGluR5
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Glutamine Synthetase
Glutamine Synthetase
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Glutamate
Glutamate
Glial Cell
Glial Cell
GABA
GABA
GAT
GAT

Overview of Synaptic Neurotransmission: GABAergic Inhibition

The long-term stability and function of neuronal networks is dependent on a maintained balance between excitatory and inhibitory synaptic transmission. The major inhibitory neurotransmitter in the central nervous system is gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA), which is converted from glutamate by the enzyme Glutamic Acid Decarboxylase (GAD). Similar to glutamate receptors (GluRs), GABA receptors are ionotropic (GABA-A) or metabotropic (GABA-B). GABA-A receptors are heteropentameric ligand-gated ion channels that selectively permit the influx of Cl- and HCO3- ions to decrease membrane excitability. Extremely heterologous with at least nineteen known subunit genes, GABA-A receptors mediate the majority of fast synaptic inhibition. Metabotropic GABA-B receptors are G protein-coupled heterodimers of GABA-B1 and GABA-B2. They are expressed on both the presynaptic and postsynaptic terminals where they inhibit neurotransmitter release and induce cell membrane hyperpolarization, respectively. A third group of receptors was originally classified as GABA-C. These receptors are now considered as members of the GABA-A family.

To learn more, please visit our GABA Receptors Research Area.