Microglia Activation During Neuroinflammation: Steady-State Microglia

Click on one of the other stages of microglia activation to see the molecules involved in that process. Click on Overview to see the generalized process of microglia activation during neuroinflammation.

Microglia Steady-State Markers
Microglia Steady-State Markers
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F4/80/
EMR1
F4/80/
EMR1
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Siglec-H
Siglec-H
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CD11b/
Integrin alpha M
CD11b/
Integrin alpha M
Fc gamma RI/
CD64
Fc gamma RI/
CD64
M-CSF R/CD115
M-CSF R/CD115
Mer
Mer
CX3CR1
CX3CR1
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FCRL4/FcRH4
FCRL4/FcRH4
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TMEM119
TMEM119
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BDNF
IGF-I
BDNF
IGF-I
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P2Y12/
P2RY12
P2Y12/
P2RY12
Microglia
Microglia
Maintenance of "Resting" Microglia
Maintenance of "Resting" Microglia
Neuron
Neuron
BDNF
beta-NGF
NT-3
BDNF
beta-NGF
NT-3
p75NTR
TrkA
TrkB
TrkC
p75NTR
TrkA
TrkB
TrkC
Siglec-2/CD22
Siglec-2/CD22
CD45
CD45
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CD200
CD200
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CD200 R1
CD200 R1
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Dopamine
GABA
Noradrenaline
VIP
Dopamine
GABA
Noradrenaline
VIP
DRD1
DRD2
GABA B Receptor
Adrenergic beta-2 R
VIP R1
VIP R2
DRD1
DRD2
GABA B Receptor
Adrenergic beta-2 R
VIP R1
VIP R2
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HSP60
HSP60
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TREM-2
TREM-2
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DAP12
DAP12
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CX3CL1/
Fractalkine
CX3CL1/
Fractalkine
CX3CR1
CX3CR1
TGF-beta
TGF-beta
TGF-beta RII
TGF-beta RII
TGF-beta RI
TGF-beta RI
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CD47
CD47
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SIRP alpha/
CD172a
SIRP alpha/
CD172a
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IL-10
IL-10
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IL-10 R
IL-10 R
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sICAM-5
sICAM-5
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Integrin alpha L
beta 2
Integrin alpha L
beta 2
Microglia
Microglia

Microglia, the immune cells of the nervous system, are typically in a quiescent, or immune-suppressed, state during normal conditions in the brain. During this time, they assume a ramified morphology, which is characterized by a very small cell body with elongated, ramified processes. These ramified microglia contribute to brain homeostasis by supporting myelin turnover, eliminating or remodeling synapses, monitoring neural firing, and actively scavenging the local environment for pathogens or tissue damage. Microglial are maintained in the ramified state through interactions with soluble and membrane-bound factors from neighboring cells. For example, Fractalkine and CD200, found on the cell surface of healthy neurons, interact with their respective receptors on microglia. These microglia receptors contain ITIM (immunoreceptor tyrosine-based inhibitory) motifs in their intracellular domain that, when phosphorylated, suppress downstream immune signaling. Additional ligand-receptor interactions that regulate microglia activation includes CD22, HSP60, and CD47 on neurons binding to CD45, TREM-2, and SIRP alpha, respectively, on microglia. Neurons also release neurotrophic factors, such as BDNF and beta-NGF, that contribute to the immune-suppressed state of microglia by inhibiting the expression of MHC class II and co-stimulatory molecules. In addition, various neurotransmitters and neuropeptides, such as GABA and dopamine, will bind to their respective receptors on microglia and suppress the production of proinflammatory cytokines. Activation of microglia is initiated, in part, following the loss of these inhibitory signals.

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Microglia Activation During Neuroinflammation: Steady-State Microglia background image 1