Microglia Activation During Neuroinflammation: Microglia Activation

Click on one of the other stages of microglia activation to see the molecules involved in that process. Click on Overview to see the generalized process of microglia activation during neuroinflammation.

Microglia Activation by ECM-Derived DAMPs
Microglia Activation by ECM-Derived DAMPs
ECM-Derived DAMPs
ECM-Derived DAMPs
MD-2
MD-2
TLR4
TLR4
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CD14
CD14
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TLR4 Complex
TLR4 Complex
Microglia
Microglia
Microglia Activation by Neural Injury-Derived DAMPs
Microglia Activation by Neural Injury-Derived DAMPs
Glutamate
Glutamate
AMPA R
AMPA R
mGluR1/5
mGluR1/5
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ATP
ATP
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P2X R
P2X R
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UTP/UDP
UTP/UDP
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P2Y R
P2Y R
Adenosine
Adenosine
Adenosine R
Adenosine R
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HSP60
HSP60
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TLR4
TLR4
MD-2
MD-2
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CD14
CD14
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TLR4 Complex
TLR4 Complex
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HMGB1/HMG-1
HMGB1/HMG-1
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Mac-1
(CD11b/CD18)
Mac-1
(CD11b/CD18)
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RAGE
RAGE
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TLR2/TLR1 or 6
TLR2/TLR1 or 6
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CD14
CD14
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CD36/
SR-B3
CD36/
SR-B3
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TLR2 Complex
TLR2 Complex
sCX3CL1/
Fractalkine
sCX3CL1/
Fractalkine
CX3CR1
CX3CR1
Microglia
Microglia
Microglia Activation by Neurodegenerative Disease-Related DAMPs
Microglia Activation by Neurodegenerative Disease-Related DAMPs
Neuromelanin
Neuromelanin
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mSOD1
mSOD1
alpha-
Synuclein
alpha-
Synuclein
TLR4
TLR4
MD-2
MD-2
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CD14
CD14
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TLR4
Complex
TLR4
Complex
Mac-1
(CD11b/CD18)
Mac-1
(CD11b/CD18)
Amyloid beta
Amyloid beta
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RAGE
RAGE
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alpha-Synuclein
alpha-Synuclein
mSOD1
mSOD1
TLR2/TLR1 or 6
TLR2/TLR1 or 6
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CD14
CD14
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CD36/
SR-B3
CD36/
SR-B3
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TLR2
Complex
TLR2
Complex
Chromogranin A
Chromogranin A
Amyloid beta
Amyloid beta
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SR-AI/
MSR
SR-AI/
MSR
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SR-BI
SR-BI
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CD36/
SR-B3
CD36/
SR-B3
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TLR4/
TLR6
TLR4/
TLR6
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CD36/
SR-B3
CD36/
SR-B3
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Amyloid beta
Amyloid beta
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MARCO
MARCO
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FPRL1/
FPR2
FPRL1/
FPR2
fAb R Complex
fAb R Complex
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CD36/
SR-B3
CD36/
SR-B3
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CD47
CD47
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Integrin
alpha 6 beta 1
Integrin
alpha 6 beta 1
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CD14
CD14
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TLR4/
TLR2
TLR4/
TLR2
alpha-Synuclein
alpha-Synuclein
Fc gamma R
Fc gamma R
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PrPSC
PrPSC
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CD40
CD40
Microglia
Microglia

Microglia function as the brain’s immune defense. In the normal, healthy central nervous system, microglia are typically in a quiescent state, as characterized by a ramified morphology. Upon infection or insult, microglia are rapidly activated. They transform from their ramified morphology to an amoeboid shape, which allows the cells to be mobile and phagocytic. They also change the expression of various enzymes and cell surface proteins, and begin to secrete immune response molecules.

Though not fully understood, it is believed that microglia activation is initiated through both removal of the inhibitory neuronal signaling and activation of pattern-recognition receptors, such as Toll-like receptors (TLRs) and RAGE, by exogenous pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) and/or endogenous damage-associated molecular patterns (DAMPs). The list of stimuli that activate microglia is extensive and includes lipopolysaccharide (LPS), pesticides, disease-specific proteins, such as Amyloid beta and alpha-Synuclein, and molecules produced from neural injury, including extracellular matrix substrates, nucleotides, and glutamate.

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Microglia Activation During Neuroinflammation: Microglia Activation background image 1