|Cell Proliferation Induced by IL‑4 and Neutralization by Cotton Rat IL‑4 Antibody. Recombinant Cotton Rat IL‑4 (Catalog # 584-R4) stimulates proliferation in the rat splenocytes in a dose-dependent manner (orange line). Proliferation elicited by Recombinant Cotton Rat IL‑4 (10 ng/mL) is neutralized (green line) by increasing concentrations of Goat Anti-Cotton Rat IL‑4 Antigen Affinity-purified Polyclonal Antibody (Catalog # AF584). The ND50 is typically 0.075-0.3 µg/mL in the presence of PHA (10 µg/mL).|
Interleukin-4 (IL-4), also known as B cell-stimulatory factor-1, is a monomeric, approximately 13 kDa‑18 kDa Th2 cytokine that shows pleiotropic effects during immune responses (1‑3). It is a glycosylated polypeptide that contains three intrachain disulfide bridges and adopts a bundled four alpha -helix structure (4). Cotton rat IL-4 is synthesized with a 24 amino acid (aa) signal sequence. Mature cotton rat IL-4 shares 41%, 44%, 57%, and 68% aa sequence identity with bovine, human, mouse, and rat IL-4, respectively. IL-4 exerts its effects through two receptor complexes (5, 6). The type I receptor, which is expressed on hematopoietic cells, is a heterodimer of the ligand binding IL-4 R alpha and the common gamma chain (a shared subunit of the receptors for IL-2, -7, -9, -15, and -21). The type II receptor on nonhematopoietic cells consists of IL-4 R alpha and IL-13 R alpha 1. The type II receptor also transduces IL-13 mediated signals. IL-4 is primarily expressed by Th2-biased CD4+ T cells, mast cells, basophils, and eosinophils (1, 2). It promotes cell proliferation, survival, and immunoglobulin class switch to IgE in B cells, acquisition of the Th2 phenotype by naïve CD4+ T cells, priming and chemotaxis of mast cells, eosinophils, and basophils, and the proliferation and activation of epithelial cells (7‑10). IL-4 plays a dominant role in the development of allergic inflammation and asthma (9, 11).
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